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Phrynosoma orbiculare (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma orbiculare - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesPhrynosoma orbiculare bradti HOROWITZ 1955
Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare (LINNAEUS 1758) 
Common NamesE: Mountain Horned Lizard
G: Mexikanische Kurzhorn-Krötenechse
S: Camaleón de Montaña 
SynonymLacerta orbicularis LINNAEUS 1758: 206
Lacerta orbicularis — GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789: 1062
Cordylus orbicularis — MEYER 1795: 17
Agama orbicularis — DAUDIN 1805: 406 (fide GENTRY 1885)
Agama orbiculare — CUVIER 1817: 35
Phrynosoma orbiculare — WIEGMANN 1828: 367
Phrynosoma orbiculare — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 321
Phrynosoma wiegmanni GRAY 1839: 96
Phrynosoma orbiculare — SUMICHRAST 1864: 507
Phrynosoma orbicularis — GENTRY 1885: 142
Phrynosoma orbiculare — BOULENGER 1885: 241
Tapaya orbicularis longicaudatus DUGÈS 1888: 117
Phrynosoma orbiculare — COPE 1900
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 97
Phrynosoma orbiculare alticola DAVIS 1953: 27 (preliminary)
Phrynosoma orbiculare — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma orbiculare alticola — CASTRO-FRANCO & BUSTOS-ZAGAL 2003
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare — KÖHLER 2021
Phrynosoma orbiculare — HEIMES 2022

Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Tapaya Boucardi DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870: 225
Phrynosoma Boucardi — GENTRY 1885: 142
Phrynosoma boucardii — BOULENGER 1885: 243
Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardi — MONTANUCCI 1979
Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii — KÖHLER 2021

Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti HOROWITZ 1955
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti HOROWITZ 1955:
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare — TAYLOR & KNOBLOCH 1940: 125
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — VAN DEVENDER & LOWE 1977
Phrynosoma orbiculare durangoensis HOROWITZ 1955 (fide MONTANUCCI 1979)
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — WEBB 1984
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — TANNER 1987
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2004
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — KÖHLER 2021

Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Tapaya cortezii DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — BOULENGER 1885: 242
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — SMITH 1934
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — SMITH 1939
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 98
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — BARAJAS et al. 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezi — SCHULZ 2018
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezi — KÖHLER 2021

Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Tapaya Dugesii DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870
Phrynosoma orbiculare (var.) dugesii — BOULENGER 1885: 243
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 98
Phrynosoma orbiculare orientale HOROWITZ 1955
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesi — MONTANUCCI 1979
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare orientale — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionMexico (Puebla, Distrito Federal, Guerrero [HR 31: 54], Hidalgo, Morelos, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Jalisco, Durango, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Nuevo León, Tlaxcala, Michoacán, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Sonora, Oaxaca, Nayarit, NE Sinaloa)

Type locality: Mexico (by inference). Restricted to México, Distrito Federal, by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

bradti: Mexico (Durango, Chihuahua); Type locality: Caborachic, Chihuahua, Mexico. The location of Caborachic is given by the collector as 15 miles south of Guachochic, Chihuahua, at an elevation of 8000 feet.

boucardii: Mexico (Hidalgo); Type locality: "Plateau of Mexico," restricted to Zimapan, Hidalgo by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

cortezii: Mexico (Puebla, Veracruz); Type locality: “"Hacienda del Jasmin," between "Orisaba and Cordoba," Veracruz.

dugesii: Mexico (Colima, Jalisco); Type locality: “Colima”.

orientale: eMxico (San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon.); Type locality: Miquihuana,Tamaulipas, Mexico.  
Reproductionovovivparous (Lambert & Wiens 2013). 
TypesHolotype: iconotype, “Presumably the unnumbered figure in Hernandez 1651 Plantas y animales de la Nueva Espana, etc., C. xvi, p. 327” (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 97)
Syntypes: MNHN-RA 1905, MNHN-RA 1906, MNHN-RA 1906A-C (5 syntypes) [cortezii]
Syntypes: MNHN-RA 1652, MNHN-RA 1652A-B, MNHN-RA 1653, MNHN-RA 1653A-D, MNHN-RA 1654, MNHN-RA 1654A-B (11 syntypes) [dugesii]
Holotype: MNHN [boucardii]
Holotype: AMNH 68359 [durangoensis]
Holotype: AMNH 68962 [bradti]
Holotype: MCZ 19561 [orientale]
Holotype: MDUG HE 422 [Tapaya orbicularis longicaudatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): adult members of the genus are readily recognizable by their stout body, occipital spines (or horns), their blunt snout, and their short tail. However, the horns are less conspicuous in hatchlings and juveniles and some species have relatively short horns (e.g. P. hernandesi). 
CommentSynonymy and subspecies after SMITH & TAYLOR 1950 and GENTRY 188. HERNANDEZ 161: 327 mentioned Lacertus orbicularis (fide GENTRY 188). Numerous intergrade zones between the various subspecies appear to exist (Horowitz, 19; Montanucci, 1979) and to such a degree that P. orbiculare was considered one variable monotypic species (McDiarmid, 1963). Barajas et al. 2013 synonymized Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii with Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii. Köhler synonymized Phrynosoma orbiculare orientale HOROWITZ 1955 with P. orbiculare dugesii.

Habitat: montane

Original description: “L. cauda tereti brevi, trunco subgloboso supra muricato” (LINNAEUS 178: 206).

Phylogeny: Belongs to the Tapaja clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006. Bryson et al. (2012) found nearly precise overlapping distributions of genetic lineages with morphologically distinct subspecies.

Type species: Lacerta orbicularis LINNAEUS 178: 206 is the type species of the genus Phrynosoma WIEGMANN 1828: 367. 
EtymologyThe species was named after the Latin word orbis, meaning "round," and the suffix -culare, meanmg small, probably in reference to the shape and size of the body.

The genus name is derived from Greek “phrynos” = toad, and “soma” = body. Genus names ending in -soma are feminine (Böhme & Denzer 2019). 
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