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Phyllodactylus nocticolus DIXON, 1964

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
SubspeciesPhyllodactylus nocticolus nocticolus DIXON 1964
Phyllodactylus nocticolus acorius DIXON 1966
Phyllodactylus nocticolus sloani BOSTIC 1971 
Common NamesE: Peninsula Leaf-toed Gecko
S: Salamanquesa Insular 
SynonymPhyllodactylus xanti nocticolus DIXON 1964: 55
Phyllodactylus xanti nocticolus — WERMUTH 1965: 147
Phyllodactylus nocticolus nocticolus — MURPHY 1983
Phyllodactylus xanti nocticolus — RÖSLER 2000: 105
Phyllodactylus nocticolus — CROTHER 2000
Phyllodactylus nocticolus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Phyllodactylus nocticolus — ENDERSON et al. 2009

Phyllodactylus nocticolus acorius DIXON 1966
Phyllodactylus xanti acorius DIXON 1966: 442
Phyllodactylus xanti angulus DIXON 1966: 433
Phyllodactylus xanti circus DIXON 1966: 439
Phyllodactylus xanti estebanensis DIXON 1966: 437
Phyllodactylus nocticolus acorius — MURPHY 1983
Phyllodactylus nocticolus angulus — MURPHY 1983
Phyllodactylus nocticolus circus — MURPHY 1983
Phyllodactylus nocticolus estebanensis — MURPHY 1983
Phyllodactylus xanti — STEBBINS 1985: 112
Phyllodactylus xanti — KLUGE 1993
Phyllodactylus nocticolus — LINER 1994
Phyllodactylus xanti — LINER 1994
Phyllodactylus xanti — RÖSLER 2000: 105
Phyllodactylus nocticolus acorius — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Phyllodactylus nocticolus circus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Phyllodactylus nocticolus estebanensis — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Phyllodactylus nocticolus zweifeli — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Phyllodactylus nocticolus sloani BOSTIC 1971
Phyllodactylus nocticolus sloani — MURPHY 1983
Phyllodactylus xanti sloani — KLUGE 1993
Phyllodactylus nocticolus sloani — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Phyllodactylus nocticolus sloani — MURPHY et al. 2009 
DistributionMexico (Baja California, Sonora),
USA (S California)

Type locality: Agua Caliente Hot Springs, San Diego County, California.

acorius: Type locality: Isla San Diego, Baja California.

angulus: Type locality: Islas Salsipuedes, Baja California

estebanensis: Type locality: Isla San Esteban, Baja California.  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 34824
Holotype: CAS 98451, adult male; Paratypes: CAS, MCZ, SDNHM = SDSNH 50827-50829 [acorius]
Holotype: CAS 08477, male; Paratypes SDNHM = SDSNH 44238, 44239, 44677, 44678, 50833, 50856-50859, 50868, 50869 [angulus]
Holotype: SDMNH = SDNHM = SDSNH 50814, adult female; paratypes: CAS, SDNHM = SDSNH 50809-50812, 50815-50817 [circus]
Holotype: CAS; Paratypes SDNHM = SDSNH 50852, 50853, 50870, 50871 [estebanensis] 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS.This, the largest subspecies, averages 52.4 mm in snout-vent length. It differs from all other races except angulus by the absence of thigh tubercles; from angulus in larger average snout-vent length and less numerous paravertebral tubercles from axilla to groin (23.0) and from rear of head to base of tail (36.7) (Dixon 1969).

DIAGNOSIS (acorius).The average snout-vent length is 41.2 mIn. This race differs from mainland races in having more interorbital scales (20.7), more enlarged tubercular rows on the dorsum (14.9) and fewer transverse ventral scales (54.6); and from adjacent insular races in having more scales between the orbits (20.7) and more numerous paravertebral tubercles from head to tail (37.3), and from axilla to groin (19.8) (Dixon 1969).

DIAGNOSIS (angulus).The average snout-vent length is 43.8 mIn. This race differs from all others except nocticolus in the absence of thigh tubercles; from nocticolus in having fewer transverse ventral scales (60.4) and more paravertebral tubercles from the rear of the head to the base of the tail (39.3) (Dixon 1969).

DIAGNOSIS (circus). The average snout-vent length is 46.4 mm. This race differs from mainland races in having fewer rows of enlarged dorsal tubercles (12.6), and fewer interorbital scales (18.2); from adjacent insular races in having fewer tubercles in a paravertebral row from axilla to groin (17.6) and from the rear of the head to the base of the tail (33.5) (Dixon 1969). 
CommentMost subspecies of P. xanti have been described as subspecies of P. nocticolus. Grismer (1999) synonymized most subspecies with P. xanti because he couldn’t find any clearly diagnosable differences. For the separate species status of P. nocticolus refer to Flores-Villela (1993), Powell et al. (1998), and Crother et al. (2000). 
References
  • BLAIR, CHRISTOPHER; FAUSTO R. MÉNDEZ DE LA CRUZ, ANDRE NGO, JOHAN LINDELL, AMY LATHROP & ROBERT W. MURPHY 2009. Molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy of leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus) inhabiting the peninsula of Baja California. Zootaxa 2027: 28-42 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. and T. W. Taggart 2009. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Sixth Edition. Center for North American Herpetology, 48 pp.
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetological Circular 29: 1-82
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, J. R. 1964. The systematics and distribution of lizards of the genus Phyllodactylus in North and Central America. New Mexico State Univ. Sci. Bull. 64: 1-139 - get paper here
  • Dixon, James R. 1969. Phyllodactylus xanti. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (79): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Dugan, E.A., Murray, S.S., Mills, A.M., Fischer, K., Lohr, D. & Faust, T. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Phyllodactylus nocticolus (Pensula Leaf-toed Gecko). Herpetological Review 48 (3): 588-589. - get paper here
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Adrian Quijada-Mascareñas; Dale S. Turner; Philip C. Rosen & Robert L. Bezy 2009. The herpetofauna of Sonora, Mexico, with comparisons to adjoining states. Check List 5 (3): 632–672 - get paper here
  • Flores-Villela,O. 1993. Herpetofauna Mexicana; lista anotada de las especies de anfibios y reptiles de Mexico, cambios taxonomicos recientes, y nuevas especies. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication 17: 73 pp. - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 1999. An evolutionary classification of reptiles on islands in the Gulf of California, México. Herpetologica 55 (4): 446-469 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Murphy, R. W. 1983. Paleobiology and genetic differentiation of the Baja California herpetofauna. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (137): 1-48 - get paper here
  • Powell, R.; Collins, J.T. and Hooper, E. 1998. A Key to the Amphibians and Reptiles of the Continental United States and Canada. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. vi + 131 pp. (257 pp.)
  • Ramírez-Reyes, T., Blair, C., Flores-Villela, O., Piñero, D., Lathrop, A., Murphy, R. 2020. Phylogenomics and molecular species delimitation reveals great cryptic diversity of leaf-toed geckos (Phyllodactylidae: Phyllodactylus), ancient origins, and diversification in Mexico. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2020), doi: - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rösler, Herbert 2017. Gecko-Chorologie (Squamata: Gekkota). Gekkota (4): 1-160
  • WOOD, D. A., A. WORREL-BLACK, R. BLACK, A. MITELBERG, M. FISHER, R. N. FISHER, A. G. VANDERGAST, AND C. BARROWS, W 2020. Newly Documented Population Extends Geographic Range and Genetic Diversity for the Peninsula Leaf-toed Gecko (Phyllodactylus nocticolus) into the Transverse Ranges of Southern California. Herpetological Review. 51:456-458.
 
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