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Phyllodactylus paralepis MCCRANIE & HEDGES, 2013

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Guanaja Leaf-toed Gecko 
SynonymPhyllodactylus paralepis MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2013
Phyllodactylus palmeus — DIXON 1968:419 (part)
Phyllodactylus insularis — ECHTERNACHT 1968: 151
Phyllodactylus palmeus — WILSON & HAHN 1973: 104 (part)
Phyllodactylus palmeus — MCCRANIE et al. 2005: 78 (part) 
DistributionHonduras (Islas de la Bahía: Guanaja)

Type locality: Savannah Bight, 16.29078°, -85.50300°, Isla de Guanaja, Islas de la Bahía, Honduras, 15 m elevation  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: FMNH 283552 (genetic sample 1, Genbank accession KF245415), an adult male, collected 20 September 2012 by James R. McCranie & Leonardo Valdés Orellana. Paratypes (7). FMNH 283553, adult female from East End, 16.486°, -85.832°, Isla de Guanaja, near sea level, collected 19 September 2012 by James R. McCranie & Leonardo Valdés Orellana; USNM 580288 (genetic sample 2, Genbank accession KF245416), 580289, adult males, 580290, an adult female, East End, Isla de Guanaja, collected 16 November 2011 by James R. McCranie; FMNH 283554, an adult female from Hotel Posada del Sol ruins, Isla de Guanaja, 16.462117°, -85.853867°, near sea level, collected 21 September 2012 by James R. McCranie and Leonardo Valdés Orellana; USNM 565401, an adult female from East Bight, Isla de Guanaja, collected 9 May 2007 by Alexander Gutsche & James R. McCranie; KU 101377, an adult male, Isla de Guanaja, no other data, 30 m, collected on 10 July 1996 by A. C. Echternacht. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Phyllodactylus paralepis has more closely spaced (0–1 granules separating) tubercles (Fig. 3) on the dorsal surfaces than does P. palmeus (1–3 granules separating dorsal tubercles). In addition, P. paralepis has 41–53 tubercles in the paravertebral row from the rear of the head to the tail and 16–17 dorsal tubercle rows across the midbody (versus 35–43 tubercles from head to tail and 11–15 tubercle rows across midbody in P. palmeus). Those two species also differ from each other in amount of sequence divergence (2.9 %; Fig. 1). Phyllodactylus paralepis also differs significantly in sequence divergence (9.8 %) from the remaining species of Phyllodactylus occurring in Honduras (P. tuberculosus). Morphologically, P. paralepis differs from P. tuberculosus, which occurs in southern Honduras, in having 41–53 tubercles in the paravertebral row from the rear of the head to the tail and 29–36 tubercles in the paravertebral row between the levels of the axilla and groin (versus 26–32 tubercles from head to tail and 20–24 tubercles between axilla and groin in P. tuberculosus). Dixon (1960) described P. insularis from Half Moon Cay in Belize about 230 km W of Isla de Guanaja. According to Dixon (1960), P. insularis has a distinct white subocular spot and dark brown dorsal surfaces, and lacks enlarged tubercles on the dorsal surfaces of the thighs (versus white subocular spot absent, pale brown dorsal surfaces, and enlarged tubercles present on thighs in P. paralepis). 
CommentSynonymie: after MCCRANIE & HEDGES 2013. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet paralepis is formed from the Greek para (near) and lepis (scale) and refers to the closely spaced tuberculate dorsal scales in this Guanaja Island endemic. 
  • Dixon,J.R. 1968. A new species of gecko (Sauna: Gekkonidae) from the Bay Islands, Honduras. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 81:419-26. - get paper here
  • Echternacht, A. C. 1968. Distributional and ecological notes on some reptiles from northern Honduras. Herpetologica 24: 151-58. - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • McCranie, J.R, L.D. Wilson & G. Köhler 2005. Amphibians & Reptiles of the Bay Islands and Cayos Cochinos, Honduras. Bibliomania, Salt Lake City, 210 pp.
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • MCCRANIE, JAMES R.; S. BLAIR HEDGES 2013. A new species of Phyllodactylus (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonoidea, Phyllodactylidae) from Isla de Guanaja in the Honduran Bay Islands. Zootaxa 3694 (1): 51–58 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Wilson, L. D., & HAHN, D. E. 1973. The herpetofauna of the Islas de la Bahía, Honduras. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 17: 93-150. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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