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Phymaturus palluma (MOLINA, 1782)

IUCN Red List - Phymaturus palluma - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLiolaemidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: High Mountain Lizard 
SynonymLacerta palluma MOLINA 1782: 345
Lacerta Palluma MOLINA 1788: 393
Cordylus Pelluma — MEYER 1795
Centrura flagellifer BELL 1843: 25
Phymaturus palluma — GRAVENHORST 1838: 750
Phymaturus palluma — BOULENGER 1885: 184
Phymaturus palluma palluma — BURT & BURT 1931: 281
Uracentron palluma — BURT & BURT 1933 (in errore)
Phymaturus palluma — PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 227
Phymaturus adrianae PEREYRA 1992 (nom. nud. fide LOBO & QUINTEROS 2005)
Phymaturus adrianae — CEI & VIDELA 2003
Phymaturus palluma — LOBO & QUINTEROS 2005
Phymaturus gynechlomus CORBALÁN, SCOLARO & DEBANDI 2009
Phymaturus flagellifer — SCOLARO & PINCHEIRA-DONOSO 2010 
DistributionChile (Coquimbo), Argentina (Catamarca, Patagonia)

Type locality: Central Chile (higher Cordillera of Chile fide GRAVENHORST 1838).

adrianae: Argentina (Mendoza)

gynechlomus: Argentina (CW Mendoza); Type locality: in rocky slopes near Cruz de Piedra River, 2 km W of Alvarado Refuge of Laguna del Diamante Reserve, (2433 m elevation), San Carlos Department, Mendoza province, Argentina.  
TypesNeotype: BMNH 1946.8.29.84 (the holotype of Centrura flagellifer Bell, 1843), designated by Etheridge and Savage (2003)
Holotype: CH-IADIZA 330, adult male, collected by G. Debandi and V. Corbalán, 04 January 2006. Paratypes: CH-IADIZA 331, adult female; CH-IADIZA 332, adult male; CH-IADIZA 333, adult female; MLP.R-5350, adult male; MLP.R.-5351, adult female. All specimens have the same collection data as the holotype [gynechlomus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Phymaturus is distinguished morphologically from other liolaemid genera by having a flat and widened body and head, lateral nuchal skin folds with fat-filled pouches, and a tail with regular rows of spiny scales (Etheridge, 1995, Hibbard et al. 2019).

Diagnosis (gynechlomus). Phymaturus gynechlomus is a member of the flagellifer (= palluma) species group because it exhibits juxtaposed superciliary scales, which are small with a quadrangular shape; fragmented subocular scales; well developed caudal spines and more than two rows of lorilabial scales between supralabial and subocular scales. The dorsal colour pattern of males of P. gynechlomus as well as the unique dorsal colour observed in females, which lacks dark spots, differentiate these species from the remaining members of the flagellifer group. P. gynechlomus belongs to the palluma group (fide LOBO et al. 2010). 
CommentSubspecies: The former subspecies P. p. patagonicus has been elevated to species status by CEI 1971.

Phylogenetics: for recent comprehensive analyses see Reaney et al. 2018 and Lobo et al. 2018.

Synonymy partly after PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 227. Phymaturus gynechlomus CORBALÁN, SCOLARO & DEBANDI 2009 is a synonym of P. palluma fide Lobo et al. 2010, and TRONCOSO-PALACIOS & LOBO 2012.

Distribution: Scolaro (2010) claimed that Sierra de Uspallata should be considered the type locality of Phymaturus palluma, and that probably Darwin collected the specimen (today neotype’s species) in this area. Distribution: not listed by Ruiz de Gamboa 2016 for Chile.

Group: This species belongs to the palluma group (fide LOBO et al. 2010).

Nomenclature: ETHERIDGE & SAVAGE (2003) suggested to conserve the widespread existing usage of the generic name Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and the specific name P. palluma (Molina, 1782) for a genus and a species of lizard (family LIOLAEMIDAE in their opinion) from South America by designating the holotype of Centrura flagellifer Bell, 1843 as the neotype of Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782. Phymaturus and P. palluma have been used in this sense since the name L. palluma was first misapplied by Gravenhorst in 1837. In their application it is accepted that Molina's lizard was actually Callopistes maculatus Gravenhorst, 1837.

The ICZN has ruled (ICZN 2005) that the current usage of the generic name Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and the specific name P. palluma (Molina, 1782) for a genus and a species of lizard (family LIOLAEMIDAE) from South America is conserved by designation of the holotype of Centrura flagellifer Bell, 1843 as the neotype of Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782.

Cei & Scolaro (2006) proposed the holotype of the iguanian synonym Centrura flagellifer (Bell, 1843) as neotype of Phymaturus palluma (Molina, 1782), the misidentified type species of Gravenhorst 1837. Such a neotype should be named Phymaturus flagellifer (Bell, 1843) in agreement to the real taxonomic position of the Molina’s species, a Teiid Callopistes, a lacertilian genus strikingly distant from the iguanid genus Phymaturus.

Type species: Lacerta palluma MOLINA 1782 is the type species of the genus Phymaturus GRAVENHORST 1838. The genus is characterized by robust lizards of stout, wide and flattened bodies that can squeeze into small rock crevices, thick tail with mucronate and spinose scales, lateral nuchal skin folds with fat-filled pouches, among other exclusive characters (Cei 1986; Etheridge 1995).

Diet: herbivorous 
EtymologyEtymology (gynechlomus): The species name derives from the peculiar dorsal coloration observed in females, in which the background is uniform and lacks any particular pattern of dark spots, as observed in other Phymaturus species. 
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  • Cabezas Cartes, F., J.M. Boretto, J.C. Acosta, G. Jahn, G. Blanco, A. Laspiur, N.R. Ibargüengoytía. 2010. Reproductive biology of Phymaturus cf palluma: a vulnerable lizard from the highlands of the Andes, San Juan, Argentina. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (3): 430–440 - get paper here
  • Castro-Pastene, Carlos; Héctor Carrasco & Jaime Troncoso-Palacios. 2015. Lagartijas y serpientes del Parque Nacional Radal Siete Tazas. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 2: 12-16 - get paper here
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  • Cei, J.M. & Videla, F. 2003. A new Phymaturus species from volcanic cordilleran mountains of the south-western Mendoza province, Argentina (Liolaemidae, Iguania, Lacertilia, Reptilia). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 20 (2): 291-314
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  • Cei, Jose Miguel; Scolaro, Jose Alejandro 2006. The neotype of the type species of the Neotropical iguanian genus Phymaturus: a critical commentary on a recent opinion of the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature. Zootaxa 1297:17-22. - get paper here
  • Eisenberg, T. 2003. Neues von Phymaturus palluma - dem Hochlandgebirgsleguan aus Chile. Iguana Rundschreiben 16 (2): 30
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  • Etheridge, R. & Savage, J.A. 2003. Case 3225: Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782 (currently Phymaturus palluma; Reptilia, Sauria): proposed conservation of usage of the names by designation of a neotype for Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 60 (1): 38 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, Richard; Savage, Jay M. 2006. Stability restored to the name Phymaturus palluma: a response to Cei and Scolaro (2006). Herpetological Review 37 (4): 406-407 - get paper here
  • Etheridge,R. 1995. Redescription of Ctenoblepharys adspersa Tschudi, 1845, and the Taxonomy of Liolaeminae (Reptilia: Squamata: Tropiduridae). American Museum Novitates 3142: 1-34 - get paper here
  • Frost, D.; Etheridge, R.; Savage, J.M. 2004. On the proposed conservation of usage of the names Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782 (currently Phymaturus palluma; Reptilia, Sauria) by designation of a neotype for Lacerta palluma. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 61 (1): 47 - get paper here
  • Gay, C. 1848. Historia física y política de Chile. Paris, Vol. 2: 47, 53, 61 - get paper here
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  • ICZN 2005. OPINION 2118 (Case 3225). Phymaturus Gravenhorst, 1837 and Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782 (currently Phymaturus palluma; Reptilia, Sauria): usage of the names conserved by the designation of a neotype for Lacerta palluma Molina, 1782. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 62 (2) - get paper here
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  • Lobo, F. & Abdala, C. 2007. Descripción de una nueva especie de Phymaturus del grupo de P. palluma de la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina. Cuadernos de herpetología 21 (2): 103-113 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F. and S. Quinteros 2005. A MORPHOLOGY-BASED PHYLOGENY OF PHYMATURUS (IGUANIA: LIOLAEMIDAE) WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF FOUR NEW SPECIES FROM ARGENTINA. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 45(13):143-177 - get paper here
  • Lobo, F. and S. Quinteros 2005. Taxonomic studies of the genus Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae): Redescription of Phymaturus patagonicus Koslowsky 1898, and revalidation and redescription of Phymaturus spurcus Barbour 1921. Journal of Herpetology 39 (4): 533-540 - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando and Richard Etheridge 2013. The Type Locality of Phymaturus palluma (Molina, 1782) (Reptilia: Iguania: Liolaemidae) and the Status of Phymaturus adrianae Pereyra, 1992 and Other Unnamed Populations. South American J. Herp. 8 (2): 89-101. - get paper here
  • Lobo, Fernando; Cristian Abdala and Soledad Valdecantos 2010. Taxonomic Studies of the Genus Phymaturus (Iguania: Liolaemidae): Description of Four New Species. South American J. Herp. 5 (2):102-126 - get paper here
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  • Lobo, Fernando; Diego A. Barrasso, Marcos Paz and Néstor G. Basso 2018. Phylogenetic relationships within a patagonian clade of reptiles (Liolaemidae: Phymaturus) based on DNA sequences and morphology. J Zool Syst, DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12221 - get paper here
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  • Vicenzi, Nadia. 2015. Phymaturus palluma (high mountain lizard) coprophagy. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 93 - get paper here
  • Vicenzi, Nadia; Erika Kubisch, Nora Ibargüengoytía and Valeria Corbalán 2019. Thermal sensitivity of performance of Phymaturus palluma (Liolaemidae) in the highlands of Aconcagua: vulnerability to global warming in the Andes. Amphibia-Reptilia 40 (2): 207–218 - get paper here
  • Vicenzi, Nadia; Nora Ibargüengoytía, and Valeria Corbalán 2019. Activity Patterns and Thermoregulatory Behavior of the Viviparous Lizard Phymaturus palluma in Aconcagua Provincial Park, Argentine Andes. Herp. Conserv. Biology 14 (2): - get paper here
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