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Physignathus cocincinus CUVIER, 1829

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Amphibolurinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Chinese Water Dragon, Green Water Dragon, Thai Water Dragon, Asian water dragon
G: Grüne Wasseragame
Chinese: 长鬣蜥 
SynonymPhysignathus cocincinus CUVIER 1829: 41 (pl. 16)
(?) Lophura concinna GRAY 1831
Lophura cuvieri GRAY 1831 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Istiurus Cochinsinensis — GUÉRIN 1829: plate 9
Istiurus Cochinsinensis — CUVIER 1837: plate 18
Istiurus physignathus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 387 (nom. subst.)
Dilophyrus mentager GÜNTHER 1861: 188 (fide SMITH 1935)
Dilophyrus mentager GÜNTHER 1861: 267
Physignathus cochinchinensis — BOULENGER 1885: 399
Physignathus mentager — BOULENGER 1885: 400
Physignathus cocincinus caudicinctus BARBOUR 1912: 192
Physignathus cocincinus mentager — BARBOUR 1912
Physignathus cocincinus — SMITH 1935: 236
Physignathus cocincinus — TAYLOR 1963: 911
Physignatus cocincinus (sic) — WERNING 1993
Physignathus cocincinus — COX et al. 1998: 104
Physignathus cocincinus — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 92
Physignathus cocincinus — ZIEGLER 2002: 182
Physignathus cocincinus — MANTHEY 2010
Physignathus concinius — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 (in error) 
DistributionE/SE Thailand, E Indochina, Vietnam (Son La etc.), Birma ? (fide MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999) S China (Namgong), Cambodia
Introduced to Taiwan (G.Norval, in AA).

Type locality: Cochinchine (= South Vietnam).

caudicinctus: Type locality: “Laokay, Tonkin”.  
Reproductionoviparous; facultatively parthenogenetic (Miller et al. 2019). 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 2537 (indicated as holotype by monotypy in Brygoo's type catalogue), ? BMNH fide BOULENGER 1885.
Paratype: ZMB 5678, "Chartaboum, Siam", leg. M. Mouhot, gek. von Gerrard [mentager]
Holotype: MCZ 8352 [caudicinctus] 
CommentType species: Physignathus cocincinus CUVIER 1829 is the type species of the genus Physignathus CUVIER 1829. The genus Physignathus is not monophyletic (TOWNSEND et al. 2011), which is why lesueurii has been assigned to various other genera.

Spelling: The original spelling in Cuvier 1829: 41 was “Phyhignat,us cocincinus” (including the typos and the comma) although the section heading was “Les Physignathes”, hence it is assumed that the species name was a (pretty serious) typo.

Karyotype: 2n=26, fundamental number (NF) = 48 in both males and females. 5 metacentric pairs and one submetacentric pair of macrochromosomes, 12 pairs of apparent microchromosomes. No apparent sex chromosomes (Patawang et al. 2015). 
EtymologyThe name given by CUVIER tried to latinize “Cochin China” which was the reason for GUÉRIN’s unjustified emendation to “cochinchinensis”. “Cochin China” is a name used by the French for the southernmost part of Vietnam. 
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  • Bobrov V.V., Semenov D.V. 2008. Lizards of Vietnam [in Russian]. Moscow, 236 pp.
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp. - get paper here
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  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Cuvier, G. 1837. The animal kingdom arranged according to its organization, serving as a foundation for the natural history of animals and an introduction to comparative anatomy. Vol II (reptiles - fishes). London, G. Henderson [dated 1834 in but scan says 1837] - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. J. L. N. F. D. 1829. Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406 - get paper here
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  • Geissler, P., Hartmann, T., Ihlow, F., Neang T., Seng R., Wagner, P. & Bohme, W. 2019. Herpetofauna of the Phnom Kulen National Park, northern Cambodia—An annotated checklist. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2019 (1): 40–63 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1831. A synopsis of the species of Class Reptilia. In: Griffith, E & E. Pidgeon: The animal kingdom arranged in conformity with its organisation by the Baron Cuvier with additional descriptions of all the species hither named, and of many before noticed [V Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London: 481 + 110 pp. [1830]
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  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
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  • Hawkeswood, T.J. & B. Sommung 2017. Physignathus cocincinus record A record of the Thai Water Dragon, Physignathus cocincinus Cuvier, 1829 (Reptilia: Agamidae) from Chonburi, Chonburi Province, Thailand. Calodema, 575: 1-3 - get paper here
  • Hawkeswood, T.J., Sommung, B. & Sommung, A. 2019. First record of the Thai Water Dragon, Physignathus cocincinus Cuvier, 1829 (Reptilia: Agamidae) from Sisaket Province, Thailand. Calodema, 712: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Hecht, Vera L.; Cuong T. Pham, Tao T. Nguyen, Truong Q. Nguyen, Michael Bonkowski & Thomas Ziegler 2013. First report on the herpetofauna of Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, northeastern Vietnam. Biodiversity Journal 4 (4): 507–552
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  • Kammerer, I. 1999. Haltung und Nachzucht von Physignathus concincinus. Elaphe 7 (1): 22-24
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  • Manthey U 2010. Agamid Lizards of Southern Asia. Draconinae 2 -Leiolepidinae. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 7b, Frankfurt, 168 pp.
  • MANTHEY, U. & S. MANTHEY 2017. Amphibien und Reptilien von Laos – Ein Reisebericht – Teil 1: Phou Khao Khouay NBCA (Februar 1998). Sauria 39 (2): 35-55 - get paper here
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  • Mo, Matthew 2019. Using citizen-science reports to document range expansion of the introduced Chinese Water Dragon (Physignathus cocincinus) in Hong Kong. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 26 (2): 128–131 - get paper here
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  • Nguyen, Van Hoang; Binh Van Ngo, Dac Chung Ngo, Quang Truong Nguyen 2018. Diet of the Indochinese Water Dragon Physignathus cocincinus Cuvier, 1829 (Squamata: Sauria: Agamidae) from Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. Russ. J. Herpetol. 25 (3): 189-194 - get paper here
  • Patawang, Isara; Alongklod Tanomtong, Sarun Jumrusthanasan, Lamyai Neeratanaphan, Krit Pinthong, Nantana Jangsuwan 2015. Karyological Analysis of the Indo-Chinese Water Dragon, Physignathus cocincinus (Squamata, Agamidae) from Thailand. CYTOLOGIA 80 (1): 15-23 - get paper here
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