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Pituophis melanoleucus (DAUDIN, 1803)

IUCN Red List - Pituophis melanoleucus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesPituophis melanoleucus lodingi BLANCHARD 1924
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (DAUDIN 1803)
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus BARBOUR 1921 
Common NamesE: Eastern Pine Snake
lodingi: Black Pine Snake
melanoleucus: Northern Pine Snake
mugitus: Florida Pine Snake; G: Florida-Kiefernnatter
G: Bullennatter 
SynonymColuber melanoleucus DAUDIN 1803: 188
Pituophis melanoleucus — HOLBROOK 1842: 7
Churchillia bellona BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 70
Pituophis bellona — BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 351
Pituophis melanoleucus — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 65
Rhinechis melanoleucus — DUMÉRIL 1853: 453
Pituophis melanoleucus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 233
Pityophis melanoleucus — GARMAN 1884: 51
Pityophis catenifer var. bellona — GARMAN 1884: 53
Pityophis melanoleucus — SCLATER 1891: 30
Coluber melanoleucus — BOULENGER 1894: 68
Pituophis melanoleucus — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Pituophis melanoleucus — STEBBINS 1985: 189
Pituophis melanoleucus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 202
Pituophis melanoleuca — BLUME 1999
Pituophis melanoleucus — BURBRINK 2007
Pituophis melanoleucus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 559

Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi BLANCHARD 1924
Pituophis lödingi BLANCHARD 1924
Pituophis melanoleucus loedingi — KLUGE 1984
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — CROTHER 2000
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 364
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — BAXLEY et al. 2011
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — SCHÄBERLE 2012

Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (DAUDIN 1803)
Coluber melanoleucus DAUDIN 1803: 188
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 360
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus — CROTHER 2000
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus — GUYER et al. 2018

Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus BARBOUR 1921
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus — CROTHER 2000
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 363
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus — HIRSCHKORN & SKUBOWIUS 2011
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus — GUYER et al. 2018 
DistributionUSA (Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, New Jersey)

melanoleucus: USA (Virginia, S North Carolina west through South Carolina to northern Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, south into Alabama. Disjunct populations in S New Jersey, WC Virginia, adjacent West Virginia, C Kentucky, SW Tennessee). Intergrades with mugitus in South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Type locality: "la Caroline méridionale et de la Floríde." Restricted to Carolina by Barbour, 1921b: 117. Further restricted to Charleston, South Carolina, USA by Schmidt, 1953a: 201.

mugitus: S South Carolina to Georgia and S Florida, extreme E and S Alabama; Type locality: Palm Beach, Florida, 26.705639° -80.036419° (WGS84), Error: 8000 m.

lodingi: SW Alabama to E Louisiana, NW Florida. Type locality: Alabama, Mobile, between Irvington and Grand Bay.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: nondesignated, present location unknown.
Holotype: UMMZ 58800 [lodingi]
Holotype: MCZ R-15525 [mugitus]
Holotype: USNM 1519 [Churchillia bellona] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSubspecies: Pituophis melanoleucus annectens, P. m. sayi, and other subspecies have been transferred to P. catenifer. Not listed in LINER 1994.

Distribution: map for subspecies in Rodríguez-Robles & De Jesús-Escobar (2000). These authors also found that two segments of the melanoleucus complex, the lodingi–melanoleucus–mugitus eastern pinesnake clade and the affinis–annectens–bimaris–catenifer–deserticola–sayi–ruthveni–vertebralis clade from central and western United States and northern Mexico, represent divergent, allopatric lineages with no known intergradation zone. Rodríguez-Robles & De Jesús-Escobar recognize each of these two groupings as a different species (see P. catenifer). Not in Mexico (Heimes 2016).

Type species: Coluber melanoleucus DAUDIN 1803: 188 is the type species of the genus Pituophis HOLBROOK 1842.

Phylogenetics: see Dahn et al. 2018 for a phylogeny of Lampropeltini. 
EtymologyThe generic name was derived from the Greek words pitys, meaning "pine" and ophis, meaning "snake." 
References
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