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Podarcis muralis (LAURENTI, 1768)

IUCN Red List - Podarcis muralis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesPodarcis muralis albanica (BOLKAY 1919)
Podarcis muralis appenninica (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis muralis baldasseronii (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis muralis beccarii (LANZA 1958)
Podarcis muralis breviceps (BOULENGER 1905)
Podarcis muralis brongniardii (DAUDIN 1802)
Podarcis muralis colosii (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis muralis maculiventris (WERNER 1891)
Podarcis muralis marcuccii (LANZA 1956)
Podarcis muralis muralis (LAURENTI 1768)
Podarcis muralis nigriventris BONAPARTE 1838
Podarcis muralis sammichelii LANZA 1976
Podarcis muralis tinettoi (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis muralis vinciguerrai (MERTENS 1932) 
Common NamesE: Common Wall Lizard
G: Mauereidechse; albanica: Balkan-Mauereidechse
Croatian: zidna gušterica
Italian: lucertola muraiola 
SynonymSeps muralis LAURENTI 1768: 61
Lacertus terrestris GARSAULT 1764
Lacerta muralis — COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta muralis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 228
Podarcis muralis — BOULENGER 1920: 162
Podarcis muralis — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 116
Podarcis muralis — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Podarcis muralis — CROTHER 2000
Podarcis muralis — KWET & TRAPP 2015

Podarcis muralis muralis (LAURENTI 1768)
Lacerta muralis occidentalis [KNOEPFFLER &] SOCHUREK 1956
Podarcis muralis muralis — BAUER & GÜNTHER 1995

Podarcis muralis albanica (BOLKAY 1919)
Lacerta muralis var. albanica BOLKAY 1919
Podarcis muralis albanica [SCHMIDT & INGER 1957]
Podarcis muralis albanica — ARNOLD 1973
Podarcis muralis albanica — BISCHOFF & BISCHOFF 1980
Podarcis muralis kefkenensis BARAN & GRUBER 1981
Podarcis muralis albanica — STRATHEMANN 1986
Podarcis muralis albanica — SCHLÜTER 2005
Podarcis muralis albanica — SCHLÜTER 2006
Podarcis muralis albanicus — MAYER 2015

Podarcis muralis appenninica (TADDEI 1949) - status unclear

Podarcis muralis baldasseronii (TADDEI 1949) - status unclear

Podarcis muralis beccarii (LANZA 1958) - status unclear

Podarcis muralis breviceps (BOULENGER 1905)
Podarcis muralis var. breviceps — BOULENGER 1920: 271
Lacerta muralis breviceps — MERTENS 1932: 250
Lacerta muralis breviceps — TADDEI 1949: 266
Podarcis muralis breviceps — SCHULTE et al. 2011
Podarcis muralis breviceps — MAYER 2015

Podarcis muralis brongniardii (DAUDIN 1802)
Lacerta Brongniardii DAUDIN 1802: 221
Lacerta merremia RISSO 1826
Podarcis muralis merremia (RISSO 1826)
Podarcis muralis merremia — GRUSCHWITZ & BÖHME 1986: 183
Podarcis muralis merremia — BISCHOFF 2005
Podarcis muralis brogniardi — SCHULTE 2008
Podarcis muralis merremius — KANTZ 2010
Podarcis muralis brongniardii — SCHLÜTER 2010
Podarcis muralis merremius — BERRONEAU 2010
Podarcis muralis brongniardii — SCHULTE et al. 2011
Podarcis muralis brongniardii — MAYER 2015
Podarcis muralis merremius — MAYER 2015
Podarcis muralis brongniardii — SCHÄBERLE & SCHÄBERLE 2018
Podarcis muralis brogniardii — BÖRNER 2019 (in error)
Podarcis muralis brongniardii — BÖRNER 2021

Podarcis muralis colosii (TADDEI, 1949)
Lacerta muralis colosii TADDEI 1949: 30
Podarcis muralis colosii — SCHWARZER et al. 1982
Podarcis muralis colosii — PAWLOWSKI et al. 2004
Podarcis muralis colosii —GRANO & GRANO 2006
Podarcis muralis colosii — MAYER 2015

Podarcis muralis baldasseronii (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta muralis baldasseronii TADDEI 1949: 31

Podarcis muralis maculiventris (WERNER 1891)
Lacerta muralis var. fusca maculiventris WERNER 1891: 752
Lacerta muralis maculiventris — TADDEI 1950: 144
Podarcis muralis maculiventris — SEHNAL & SCHUSTER 1999
Podarcis muralis maculiventris — PAWLOWSKI & KRÄMER 2009
Podarcis muralis maculiventris — DIECKMANN & DIECKMANN 2010
Podarcis muralis maculiventris — SCHULTE et al. 2011
Podarcis muralis maculiventris — MAYER 2015
Podarcis muralis maculiventris — BÖRNER 2021

Podarcis muralis marcuccii (LANZA 1956) - status unclear

Podarcis muralis nigriventris BONAPARTE 1838
Podarcis muralis nigriventris BONAPARTE 1838: 103 (BHL)
Podarcis muralis brueggemanni BEDRIAGA 1879 (fide SCHULTE et al. 2011)
Podarcis muralis var. nigriventris — BOULENGER 1920: 237
Podarcis muralis var. brueggemanni — BOULENGER 1920: 232
Lacerta muralis nigriventris — TADDEI 1949: 256
Podarcis muralis nigriventris — KRONIGER & ZAWADZKI 2005
Podarcis muralis nigriventris — SCHULTE et al. 2011
Podarcis muralis nigriventris — MAYER 2015
Podarcis muralis nigriventris — DOST 2023: 64

Podarcis muralis parkeri (MERTENS 1926)
Lacerta muralis parkeri MERTENS 1926: 322
Lacerta muralis parkeri — TADDEI 1949: 260

Podarcis muralis sammichelii LANZA 1976
Podarcis tiliguerta sammichelii LANZA 1976

Podarcis muralis tinettoi (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta bedriagae tinettoi TADDEI 1949: 201
Lacerta muralis brüggemanni MERTENS 1932: 240 (fide LANZA 1952)
Lacerta (Podarcis) muralis tinettoi — LANZA 1952: 74

Podarcis muralis vinciguerrai MERTENS 1932
Lacerta sicula vinciguerrai MERTENS 1932
Lacerta sicula vinciguerrai — GRUSCHWITZ & BÖHME 1986: 292 
DistributionAustria, Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Italy (incl. Elba), Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia (Slavonia), Cres island, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece (incl. Samothraki, Corfu), Turkey (NW Anatolia),
Spain, France, Belgium, SE Netherlands, W Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Czech Republic (isolated population, NE Moravia), Ukraine

United Kingdom (England, introduced)
USA (introduced to Ohio [HR 8: 19, HR 19: 19], Kentucky; introduced: HR 30: 57; Gibbons et al. 2009)
Canada (introduced to British Columbia in the late 1970s).

albanica: Bulgaria, Romania, Greece (etc.); Type locality: Fieri, S-AIbanien.

beccarii: Italy (Tuscany); Type locality: Port’Ercole Islet, Tuscany, Italy.

breviceps: Italy (Calabria); Type locality: Calabria

collosi: Italy (islands of Toscany); Type locality: Elba Island

brongniardii: NW Spain, Andorra, France, W Germany, Switzerland; Type locality: Fontainebleau (SE of Paris)

maculiventris: S Switzerland, W Austria, N Italy, W Slovenia, NW Croatia, SE Germany (Bavaria); Type locality: Fiume; (”Triest” fide Mayer 2015).

marcuccii: Italy (Tuscany); Type locality: Argentarola Islet, Tuscany, Italy

merremia (now invalid): E Spain, S France, W Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany. Type locality: Nizza.

nigriventris: Italy (incl. Elba and neighboring Islands), introduced to Germany and Austria; Type locality: Rome

parkeri: Italy, Isola di S. Stefano (Ventotene, Ponzie, fide TADDEI 1949: 260)

tinettoi: Italy (Liguria); Type locality: “Isola del Tinetto, Spezia”  
TypesSyntypes: NMW 16096:1-7 [albanica]
Holotype: MZUF (Museo Firenze) [colosii]
Holotype: MZUF (Museo Firenze) [baldasseronii]
Syntypes: MZN (Zoological Museum of the Naples University, 6 specimens) [breviceps]
Holotype: unlocated; not in MNHN (I. Ineich, pers. comm., March 2019) [brongniardii]
Holotype: ZDEU (given as SZE) 103/1979, male [kefkenensis]
Syntypes: NMW 16098 (m.) [maculiventris]
Holotype: MZUF 19375, adult male; paratypes: MZUF [sammichelii]
Holotype: MZUF (Museo Firenze) [tinettoi]
Paratype: MSNG 31877 [vinciguerrai] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Possibly the only Lacertini to have the oviducts inserting into the genital sinus near the tips of the lobes. Also possessing the following features found only in a minority of other Lacertini: maxillary-jugal suture often stepped, usual numbers of presacral vertebrae 26–27 in males, sternal fontanelle quite strongly heart-shaped in most cases, pattern of tail vertebrae C-type, nearly always a single postnasal scale, outer edge of parietal scale reaching lateral border of parietal table both posteriorly and anteriorly, sexual dimorphism in dorsal colouring usually marked, with narrow light stripes often present in females, hemipenial lobes long with large outer sulcal lips. Other more widely distributed features include: head and body often not strongly depressed (although exceptions exist), usually seven premaxillary teeth in adults, inscriptional ribs often present, tail occasionally brightly coloured in hatchlings, hemipenial microornamentation of hook-shaped spines (from Arnold et al. 2007: 53). 
CommentSubspecies: ENGELMANN et al 1993 also list Podarcis muralis brueggemanni (BEDRIAGA 1879) and Podarcis muralis paulinii (TADDEI 1953). Henle & Klaver 1986: 288 list a number of subspecies described under L. muralis as subspecies of siculus, e.g. albiventris, elegans, parkeri. Gruschwitz & Böhme 1986 suspect that P. m. kefkenensis is a synonym of P. m. albanica, although the latter is not clearly diagnosable either and may be a synonym itself.

Distribution: Reports about introductions to Illinois (USA) are erroneous (Elaphe 11 [1]: 11). For a map of P. brongniardii and maculiventris in Germany see Schmidtler in Andrä et al. 2019: 45.

Type species: Seps muralis Laurenti 1768 is the type species of the genus Podarcis WAGLER 1830. Podarcis was treated as subgenus for decades (e.g. Boulenger 1916) but was er in raised to full genus by Arnold 1973. See also Böhme 1984, 1986 and Arnold 1989:246 for details.

Genomics: this is one of the species selected by the Genome 10K consortium for complete genome sequencing. A genome sequence was presented by Andrade et al. 2019.

Nomenclature: BÖHME & KÖHLER (2005) “conclude that the gender of Podarcis must be masculine for the following reasons: (1) WAGLER (1830) did not determine the gender by combination with any species name nor by statement, (2) the name Podarcis is of common variable gender, (3) the Principle of First Reviser does not apply to determination of gender ot names, (4) the Code clearly states that a name of common variable gender is to be treated as masculine. 
EtymologyThe species was named after Latin “muralis”, meaning to live on walls.

The genus has been named after the Greek “podarkes”, meaning fast. For a discussion on the gender of Podarcis see Böhme (1997, 2005). 
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