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Podocnemis erythrocephala (SPIX, 1824)

IUCN Red List - Podocnemis erythrocephala - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaPodocnemididae, Pelomedusoidea, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Red-headed Amazon Side-necked Turtle
Portuguese: Calalumã, Irapuca 
SynonymEmys cayennensis SCHWEIGGER 1812 (part.)
Emys erythrocephala SPIX 1824: 9
Emys bitentaculata CUVIER in GRAY 1830: 17
Emys enythrocephala [sic] — SCHINZ 1833
Podocnemis agassizii COUTINHO in GÖLDI 1886: 277
Podocnemis coutinhii GÖLDI 1886: 279 (nom. nov.)
Podocnemis dumeriliana — BOULENGER 1889 (partim)
Podocnemis cayennensis — SIEBENROCK 1902
Podocnemis erythrocephala — FRAIR et al. 1978
Podocnemis erythrocephala — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Podocnemis erythrocephala — TTWG 2014
Podocnemis erythrocephala — TTWG 2021 
DistributionColombia (Rio Negro and Rio Casiquiare drainages), Venezuela, Brazil (Pará [HR 31: 253])

Type locality: "Rio Solimoens" (=Rio Solimoes), South America, most probably Brazil; but Vanzolini 1981 (in: Spix and Wagler 1824-1825) believes the Rio Solimoes is outside the species range.  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesHolotype: ZSM 2517/0 
CommentSPIX 1824 is the original describer according to KING & BURKE 1989.

Synonymy: BAUR (1893) considered this species as a synonym of Podocnemis unifilis. Called Podocnemis cayennensis by most authors until nomenclature was clarified by Mittermeier and Wilson 1974.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers and tributaries) 
  • Aciole, A N S; Miorando, P S & Andrade, P C M; 2019. Podocnemis erythrocephala (Red-headed River Turtle) Unusual nests. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 562 - get paper here
  • Baur, G. 1893. Notes on the classification and taxonomy of the Testudinata. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 31: 210-225 - get paper here
  • Bernardes, VirgÍnia Campos Diniz; Camila Rudge Ferrara, Richard C. Vogt, and Larissa Schneider 2014. Abundance and Population Structure of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Testudines, Podocnemididae) in the Unini River, Amazonas. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jul 2014, Vol. 13, No. 1: 89-95. - get paper here
  • Bernhard, R., Bernhard, R. M. L. & Vogt, R. C. 2012. Podocnemis erythrocephala (red-headed Amazone river turtle) kyphosis. Herpetological Review 43: 639 - get paper here
  • Bernhard, Rafael and Richard C. Vogt 2012. Population Structure of the Turtle Podocnemis erythrocephala in the Rio Negro Basin, Brazil. Herpetologica 68 (4): 491-504. - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Bour, Roger 2006. Types of Podocnemidae in the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Emys 13 (1): 27-40
  • Cardoso dos Santos, Rafaela; Maria das Neves Silva Viana, Luíz Alberto dos Santos Monjeló, Paulo César Machado Andrade, Jackson Pantoja-Lima, Paulo Henrique Guimarães Oliveira, Richard C. Vogt, Juarez Carlos Brito Pezzuti, Jack W. Sites, Tomas Hrbek, 2016. Testing the Effects of Barriers on the Genetic Connectivity in Podocnemis erythrocephala (Red-Headed Amazon River Turtle): Implications for Management and Conservation. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 15 (1): 12-22. - get paper here
  • Cornejo-Páramo, P., Lira-Noriega, A., Ramírez-Suástegui, C. et al. 2020. Sex determination systems in reptiles are related to ambient temperature but not to the level of climatic fluctuation. BMC Evol Biol 20: 103 - get paper here
  • Da Cunha, Fernando Lima Rodrigues, Rafael Bernhard and Richard C. Vogt. 2014. Podocnemis erythrocephala, Podocnemis expansa, Podocnemis sextuberculata, Podocnemis unifilis (red-headed Amazon River turtle, giant South American River turtle, six-tubercled Amazon River turtle, yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle) coexistence. Herpetological Review 45 (2): 319 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Frair, W.; Mittermeier, R.A.; Rhodin, A.G.J. 1978. Blood biochemistry and relations among Podocnemis turtles (Pleurodira, Pelomedusidae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 61B: 139-143 - get paper here
  • Gaffney, Eugene S.; Peter A. Meylan, Roger C. Wood, Elwyn Simons, and Diogenes De Almeida Campos 2011. Evolution of the Side-Necked Turtles: The Family Podocnemididae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (350): 1-237 - get paper here
  • Goeldi, E. A. 1886. Ueber eine vermuthlich neue Schildkröte der Gattung Podocnemis vom Rio Negro und über die Chelonier des Amazonas-Gebietes im Allgemeinen. St. Gallische Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, Bericht über die Thätigheit 1884–1885 [1886]: 273–280
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Gray, J. E. 1830. Spicilegia Zoologica. Part 2. Treüttel, Würtz, London
  • Herz, M. 2014. Begegnungen mit Schildkröten im venezolanischen Bundesstaat Amazonas. Teil 1: Wasserschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (110): 52-59
  • Hoogmoed, M. S.;Avila-Pires, T. C. S. de 1990. New distribution data for Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix) with remarks on some other turtle taxa (Reptilia: Chelonia: Pelomedusidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 64: 21-24 - get paper here
  • Magalhães, Marcela S.; Richard C. Vogt, José Fernando M. Barcellos, Carlos Eduardo B. Moura, and Ronis Da Silveira 2014. Morphology of the Digestive Tube of the Podocnemididae in the Brazilian Amazon. Herpetologica Dec 2014, Vol. 70, No. 4: 449-463. - get paper here
  • Mittermeier, R.A., and R.A. Wilson. 1974. Redescription of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824), and Amazonian pelomedusid turtle. Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 28:147-162.
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018. 210p. - get paper here
  • Pritchard, P.C.H., and P. Trebbau. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. SSAR Contributions to Herpetology 2: viii + 402 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schweigger, A.F. 1812. Prodromus Monographia Cheloniorum auctore Schweigger. Königsberg. Arch. Naturwiss. Mathem., 1: 271-368, 406-458.
  • Spix, J.B. and J.G. Wagler 1824. Herpetology of Brazil. Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 400 pp.
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
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