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Polychrus liogaster BOULENGER, 1908

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Higher TaxaPolychrotidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Boulenger's Bush Anole
G: Glattbäuchiger Buntleguan
Portuguese: Camaleão, Camaleãozinho, Papa-Vento 
SynonymPolychrus liogaster BOULENGER 1908: 113
Polychrus marmoratus liogaster — BURT & BURT 1933: 41
Polychrus liogaster — PETERS et al. 1970: 234
Polychrus marmoratus — DUELLMAN 1987: 492
Polychrus liogaster — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Polychrus liogaster — SCHLÜTER 2013: 57 
DistributionBolivia (Amazonas, Beni, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), SE Peru, Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Rondonia), Ecuador

Type locality: Provincia Sara, Bolivia, 750 m elevation, and Chanchamayo, eastern Peru.  
TypesType: BMNH 1946.8.8.22-23 (and possibly additional specimens). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Polychrus with a blunt snout; relatively large and nearly smooth scales on dorsal surface of head; nasal in contact with second supralabial, in some specimens also with a short suture with first or third supralabial; a gular crest formed b y low and wide, enlarged scales present anterior to gular fan; scales o n sides of neck larger than those on nape, and those on flanks about as large as, or smaller than, scales on tail; ventrals smooth or only slightly keeled; with three black lines radiating from each eye, two of which reach level of forelimbs. No sexual dimorphism in colour pattern. A forest inhabitant (Avila-Pires 1995: 133).

Description. Very similar to P. marmoratus, to the description of which I refer, except for what follows. Maximum SVL in males 134 mm (BM 1946.8.8.26), in females 152 mm (RMNH 5243a). Head 0.21-0.25 (0.22 ± 0.02, n= 12) times SVL, 1.5-1.6 (1.57 ± 0.05, n= 12) times as long as wide, 1.0-1.2 (1.14 ± 0.06, n= 12) times as wide as high. Forelimbs 0.35-0.39 (0.37 ± 0.02, n= 7) times SVL, hind limbs 0.49-0.51 (0.50 ± 0.01, n= 5) times, tibia 0.14-0.17 (0.15 ± 0.01, n= 12) times, tail 2.4-3.1 (2.67 ± 0.23, n= 10) times.
Postrostrals 2-4. Scales on snout between second canthals 2-4, mostly three. Canthals two. Scales in supraorbital semicircle 7-8, exceptionally nine. Supraciliaries 9-13, mostly 11-12. Loreal scales below second canthal 1-3. Preoculars 2-3, suboculars 2-3, postoculars 3-4. Supralabials 6-7, one but last below centre of eye, followed to commissure by 2-4 scales. Postmentals 2-4, mostly three. Infralabials 5-7,4-6 to below centre of eye, followed to commissure by 2-4 (mostly three) scales. Enlarged scales in gular crest low, wide. Scales on sides of neck slightly larger than those on nape. Dorsals smooth or slightly keeled, 103-125 (110.3 ± 6.9, n= 12) scales in a middorsal line between occiput and posterior margin of hind limbs. Scales on flanks mostly smooth. Ventrals mostly smooth or, in some specimens, part of them (especially posteriorly) slightly keeled. Scales around midbody 66-95 (79.4 ± 7.6, n= 12). Femoral pores either form a notch in a scale, or occupy its centre; total number 15-24 (21.3 ± 2.8, n= 12). Lamellae under fourth finger 29-37 (32.6 ± 2.4, n= 24,12 specimens), under fourth toe 38-47 (42.1 ± 2.7, n= 24,12 specimens).
BM 1946.8.8.26 is mainly blue, with a wide tan vertebral band and tan tail; it has a label on which it is described as "nice live green, the light brown colour of tail runs over the back until the neck" (translated from German). CEPB 302-303 have a similar pattern, while the remaining specimens are an irregular mixture of blue and brown, with or without "V"-shaped transverse light bands along back and flanks. The three black lines radiating from eyes, which are present in P. marmoratus, are also seen, but here the two that are directed posteriorly continue along neck, where they may become wider, reaching level of forelimbs (in INPA 452 the head and neck segments are separated by a gap); they may enclose an area lighter than the area outside. The juvenile RMNH 5243 dorsally is brown with a banded pattern, ventrally mostly tan, chin and gular fan medially cream; the lines radiating from eyes are present but not very conspicuous (Avila-Pires 1995: 133). 
  • Avila-Pires, T.C.S. 1995. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoologische Verhandelingen 299: 1-706 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, GEORGE A. 1908. Descriptions of new South-American reptiles. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 1: 111-115 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 2005. Cusco Amazónico: The Lives of Amphibians and Reptiles in an Amazonian Rainforest. Comstock Pub Assoc.
  • Fugler,C. M. 1983. Lista preliminar de los anfibios y reptiles de Tumi Chucua. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. (Bolivia) Comunicación 2: 4-11.
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Losos, J. B. 2009. Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: Ecology and Adaptive Radiation of Anoles. Berkeley: University of California Press, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Peters, James A. & Donoso-Barros, Roberto 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part II. Lizards and Amphisbaenians. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 293 pp. - get paper here
  • Rabosky, Daniel L.; Rudolf von May, Michael C. Grundler and Alison R. Davis Rabosky 2019. The Western Amazonian Richness Gradient for Squamate Reptiles: Are There Really Fewer Snakes and Lizards in Southwestern Amazonian Lowlands? Diversity 11: 199; doi:10.3390/d11100199 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. 2015. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae. Zootaxa 3983 (1): 001–110 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, Uwe 2013. Buntleguane - Lebensweise, Pflege und Fortpflanzung. KUS-Verlag, 80 pp. - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Koch C, Venegas PJ, Poe S 2017. Phylogeny and diversity of neotropical monkey lizards (Iguanidae: Polychrus Cuvier, 1817). PLoS One 12 (6): e0178139 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
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