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Polychrus marmoratus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaPolychrotidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Many-colored Bush Anole, Common Monkey Lizard
G: Marmorierter Buntleguan, Grünliche Färberechse
Portuguese: Bicho-Preguiça, Calango-Cego, Calango-Verde, Camaleão, Catatau, Falso-Camaleão, Lagarto-Preguiça, Papa-Vento, Papa-Vento-Verde 
SynonymLacerta marmorata LINNAEUS 1758: 208
Iguana marmorata — MEYER 1795:17
Lacerta marmorata — SHAW 1802: 224
Agama marmorata — DAUDIN 1802: 433
Polychrus marmoratus — MERREM 1820: 48
Polychrus strigiventris WAGLER 1821 (1828?)
Polychrus virescens SCHINZ 1822: 65 (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837)
Polychrus marmoratus — SPIX 1825
Polychrus virescens — WAGLER 1828
Lacerta marmorata — CUVIER 1831: 135
Polychrus Neovidanus WAGLER 1833: 897
Polychrus marmoratus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 65
Polychrus marmoratus — GRAY 1845: 183
Polychrus marmoratus — BOULENGER 1885: 98
Polychrus marmoratus marmoratus — BURT & BURT 1933: 41
Polychrus marmoratus — PETERS et al. 1970: 234
Polychrus marmoratus — DUELLMAN 1978: 207
Polychrus marmoratus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Polychrus marmoratus — SCHLÜTER 2013: 59 
DistributionGuyana, Suriname (fide Murphy et al. 2017)

Type locality: “Hispania”

Introduced probably to USA (Florida)  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: UUZM (= ZMUU) 14, 31 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Polychrotids with an extendable, sac-like gular fan; no transversely expanded subdigital lamellae; third and fourth fingers, and third and fourth toes, subequal; cone-shaped eyes, with eyelids partially fused; femoral pores present. Body compressed, with long limbs and digits; tail very long, round in cross section, tapering toward the tip. Dorsal surface of head covered by relatively large, polygonal scales. Dorsal crest completely absent, or present anteriorly [P. peruvianus (Noble)] (Avila-Pires 1995: 126).

Diagnosis: Loreal usually fragmented into three or four scales; supranasal scale frequently (about 0.50) makes contact with loreal. One to three internasals. Vertebral rows 95–117; scales around mid-body 66–90. Snout length is 0.58 of orbit length. Lamellae on fourth toe 35–44. Usually three scales between first canthals, and five between the second; nasal contacts first two upper labials. Total femoral pores 8–19. Many multicarinate paravertebral scales; paravertebrals not much larger than laterals. The number of supraocular rows usually six (rarely 5 or 7). Scales on snout and supraoculars finely striated to smooth with tiny tubercles. Scales on anterior surface of humerus keeled; a reduced gular crest starts at the level of the first or second lower labial [Murphy et al. 2017: 11]. 
CommentSynonymy partly after Peters et al. 1970.

Distribution: formerly reported from Brazil (Amazonas, Pernambuco, Sao Paulo, Maranhao, Para, Amapa, Roraima, Espírito Santo, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro), S Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, Isla Margarita, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru (Pasco etc.), Colombia, but Murphy et al. 2017 have restricted this species to populations from Guyana and Suriname.

Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005), and possibly in French Guyana and northern Brazil (Murphy et al. 2017).

Type species: Lacerta marmorata LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Polychrus CUVIER 1817: 40 
EtymologyNamed after the Greek polys = many, and chroma, chros = colour, meaning many-colored. Similarly, marmoratus refers to the marmorated color pattern. The name “monkey lizard” most likely was given because they walk slowly, grabbing the vegetation with their hands, much like chameleons, and in part also using the long tail (T. Avila-Pires, pers. comm., 28 De 2016, via H. Bringsøe). 
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