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Protobothrops tokarensis (NAGAI, 1928)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Tokara Habu 
SynonymTrimeresurus tokarensis NAGAI 1928: 6
Trimeresurus flavoviridis tokarensis MAKI 1931
Trimeresurus tokarensis — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Protobothrops tokarensis — HOGE & ROMANO-HOGE 1983
Protobothrops tokarensis — WELCH 1994: 103
Protobothrops tokarensis — KRAUS et al. 1996
Protobothrops tokarensis — PARKINSON 1999
Trimeresurus tokarensis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 347
Protobothrops tokarensis — TU et al. 2000
Protobothrops tokarensis — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Trimeresurus tokarensis — GORIS & MAEDA 2004: 271
Protobothrops tokarensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 573 
DistributionJapan (Takar-jima, Kotakara-jima)

Type locality: Takara-shima, Ryukyu Islands.  
TypesType: Unlocated (MCDIARMID et al. 1999) 

Taxonomy: The appropriate genus for tokarensis seems to be Protobothrops (W. Wüster, pers. comm.).

Distribution: see map in Guo et a. 2016: 383 (Fig. 1).

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • ELDEN, JUSTIN; STEPHEN H. HAMMACK & JEFFREY E. DAWSON 2021. Husbandry and Reproduction of Protobothrops tokarensis (Nagai, 1928) at the Saint Louis Zoo. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 325–329
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407 - get paper here
  • GUO, PENG; QIN LIU, TAO WEN, RONG XIAO, MING FANG, GUANGHUI ZHONG, NGUYEN Q. TRUONG, FEI ZHU, ROBERT C. JADIN, CAO LI 2016. Multilocus phylogeny of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Protobothrops). Zootaxa 4093 (3): 382–390 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Nagai, K. 1928. Tokara-Habu to Erabu-uangi (Trimeresurus elegans and Laticauda semifasciata). In: Kagoshimeken Hakubutsu- Chosa (“Survey on the natural history in Kagoshima Prefecture”) (in Japanese). Kagoshimeken Kyoiku Chosa Kai 3, v + 64 pp., 14 pls.
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, and Nguyen Thien Tao 2009. Two New Species of Genera Protobothrops Hoge et Romano-Hoge, 1983 and Viridovipera Malhotra et Thorpe, 2004 (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Karst Region in Northeastern Vietnam. Part I. Description of a New Species of Protobothrops Genus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (1): 69-82 - get paper here
  • PAN, Hujun; Basundhara CHETTRI, Daode YANG, Ke JIANG, Kai WANG, Liang ZHANG and Gernot VOGEL 2013. A New Species of the Genus Protobothrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southern Tibet, China and Sikkim, India. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (2): 109–115 - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • PAUL, LAURENCE & ROBERT W. MENDYK. 2021. Glow and Behold: Biofluorescence and New Insights on the Tails of Pitvipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae) and Other Snakes. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 221–237. - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO DUARTE, MARCELO & VALDIR JOSÉ GERMANO. 2021. Protobothrops tokarensis (Tokara Habu Pit Viper). Longevity. Herpetological Review 52 (1): 71. - get paper here
  • Shibata, Hiroki; Takahito Chijiwa, Shosaku Hattori, Koki Terada, Motonori Ohno, Yasuyuki Fukumaki 2016. The taxonomic position and the unexpected divergence of the Habu viper, Protobothrops among Japanese subtropical islands,. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.027 - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; NIKOLAI L. ORLOV & YING-YONG WANG 2011. A new species of pitviper of the genus Protobothrops from China (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2936: 59–68 - get paper here
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