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Protobothrops xiangchengensis (ZHAO, JIANG & HUANG, 1978)

IUCN Red List - Protobothrops xiangchengensis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Szechwan Pit Viper, Kham plateau pitviper
Chinese: 乡城原矛头蝮 
SynonymTrimeresurus xiangchengensis ZHAO 1978 (meeting abstract)
Trimeresurus xiangchengensis ZHAO, JIANG & HUANG 1978
Trimeresurus xiangchengensis — WELCH 1994: 117
Protobothrops xiangchengensis — KRAUS et al. 1996
Trimeresurus xiangchengensis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 348
Trimeresurus xiangchengensis — PENG & FIJI 2000
Protobothrops xiangchengensis — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Protobothrops xiangchengensis — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Protobothrops xiangchengensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 573 
DistributionChina (Yunnan, W Sichuan)

Type locality: Qianjinxiang, Xiangcheng County, Hengduan Mountains, Sichuan, elevation 3100 m.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: CIB 725050, Male; 3100 m; 10. 7, 1972. 
Diagnosis 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: This species was suspected to be a synonym of Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus (Indraneil DAS in MCDIARMID et al. 1999). However, Guo et al. (2006) and VOGEL (pers. comm. 23 Nov 2012) argue that it is a valid species.

Distribution: see map in Guo et a. 2016: 383 (Fig. 1).

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
References
  • David, Patrick;Tong, Haiyan 1997. Translations of recent descriptions of Chinese pitvipers of the Trimeresurus-complex (Serpentes, Viperidae), with a key to the complex in China and adjacent areas. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (112): 1-31 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P., F. J. Zhang, and Y. Y. Chen. 1999. Catalogue of type specimens of reptiles in the Herpetological Collections of Chengdu Institute of Biology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Asiatic Herpetological Research 8: 43~47 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407 - get paper here
  • Guo, Peng; Pang, Junfeng; Zhang, Yaping; Zhao, Ermi 2006. A Re-analysis of the phylogeny of the genus Protobothrops (Reptilia: Viperidae), with particular reference to the systematic position of P. xiangchengensis. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (3): 433-439 - get paper here
  • GUO, PENG; QIN LIU, TAO WEN, RONG XIAO, MING FANG, GUANGHUI ZHONG, NGUYEN Q. TRUONG, FEI ZHU, ROBERT C. JADIN, CAO LI 2016. Multilocus phylogeny of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Protobothrops). Zootaxa 4093 (3): 382–390 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Kraus, Fred; Mink, Daniel G. & Brown, Wesley M. 1996. Crotaline intergeneric relationships based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Copeia 1996 (4): 763-773 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, and Nguyen Thien Tao 2009. Two New Species of Genera Protobothrops Hoge et Romano-Hoge, 1983 and Viridovipera Malhotra et Thorpe, 2004 (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Karst Region in Northeastern Vietnam. Part I. Description of a New Species of Protobothrops Genus. Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (1): 69-82 - get paper here
  • PAN, Hujun; Basundhara CHETTRI, Daode YANG, Ke JIANG, Kai WANG, Liang ZHANG and Gernot VOGEL 2013. A New Species of the Genus Protobothrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southern Tibet, China and Sikkim, India. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (2): 109–115 - get paper here
  • Peng, G. & Fuji, Z. 2001. Comparative studies on hemipenes of four species of Trimeresurus (sensu stricto) (Serpentes: Crotalinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 22 (1): 113-117 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; NIKOLAI L. ORLOV & YING-YONG WANG 2011. A new species of pitviper of the genus Protobothrops from China (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2936: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Zhao E M 1979. A new snake of the genus Trimeresurus from Sichuan, China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 4 (4): 422-424
  • Zhao, E 1978. Trimeresurus xiangchengensis - a new species of the genus Trimeresurus from China. Proc. Symp. China Soc. Zool., China Soc. Entomol. Chengdu [meeting abstract]; also cited as Mater. Herpetol. Res. Chengdu 4: 21 [English translation by David & Tong, 1997, SHIS (112): 7].
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
 
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