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Psammophis longifrons BOULENGER, 1890

IUCN Red List - Psammophis longifrons - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPsammophiidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Long Sand Racer, Stocky Sand Snake 
SynonymPsammophis longifrons BOULENGER 1890: 366
Psammophis longifrons — BOULENGER 1896: 165
Psammophis longifrons — SMITH 1943: 365
Psammophis longifrons — DAS 1996: 58
Psammophis longifrons — MURTHY 2010
Taphrometopon longifrons — WALLACH et al. 2014: 709 
DistributionIndia (Maharashtra, S Gujarat, S Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana)

Type locality: “Cuddapah Hills, British India” [= Kadapa, S Andhra Pradesh State, S India, 14°28’N, 78°49’E, 135 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.8.44 
CommentHabitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • CHEN, M., LIU, J., CAI, B., LI, J., WU, N., & GUO, X. 2021. A new species of Psammophis (Serpentes: Psammophiidae) from the Turpan Basin in northwest China. Zootaxa 4974 (1), 116-134 - get paper here
  • D'Abreu, E.A. 1913. Occurrence of the Snake (Psammophis longifrons) at Nagpur. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 634 - get paper here
  • DESHMUKH, R.V., BADHEKAR, S. A., KATGUBE, S. D., LOHI, G. R. & MESHRAM, A. 2020. Erstnachweise versuchter Autophagie bei Psammophis longifrons und Rhabdophis plumbicolor aus Indien. Sauria 42 (3): 71-72 - get paper here
  • Deshmukh, Rahul V.; Sagar A. Deshmukh, Swapnil A. Badhekar, and Roshan Y. Naitame 2020. Snakes of Bhandara District, Maharashtra, Central India with notes on natural history. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (1): 10–17 - get paper here
  • Gandla, Chethan Kumar 2020. Additional locality record and first breeding evidence of Stout Sand Snake Psammophis longifrons Boulenger, 1896 (Reptilia, Squamata) from the Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India. Herpetology Notes 13: 769-772 - get paper here
  • Ganesh S.R., Bubesh Guptha 2021. Herpetological diversity in the Central Eastern Ghats, Peninsular India. Journal of Animal Diversity, 3(3): 18-44 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Kalki, Yatin; Sachin Gowda 2021. New locality records for the Indian Egg-eating Snake (Elachistodon westermanni) and the Stout Sandsnake (Psammophis longifrons) in Karnataka, India. Reptiles & Amphibians 28 (1): 65-66 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Patel, Harshil; and Raju Vyas 2019. Reptiles of Gujarat, India: Updated Checklist, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Herpetology Notes 12: 765-777 - get paper here
  • Patel, Harshil; Raju Vyas, Vaibhav Naik, Bhautik Dudhatra & Shantilal K. Tank 2018. Herpetofauna of the Northern Western Ghats of Gujarat, India. Zoology and Ecology, DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2018.1499237 - get paper here
  • Pawar Prabhakar R., Rokade Anil G., Supnekar Santosh P., Meshram Leena N., Pawar Namdeo B.and Gavhane Usha V. 2020. Diversity and Distribution of Snakes in Adjoining Areas of Panvel, Navi Mumbai, West Coast of India. International Journal of Zoological Investigations 6 (2): 289-300 - get paper here
  • Premkumar, Suhas and Sharma, Vivek 2017. Geographic Distribution: Psammophis longifrons (Stocky Sand Racer). Herpetological Review 48 (1): 131 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Visvanathan, A., Anne, S., Kolli, A. K., & Vangari, S. M. 2022. Snakes of Telangana: An annotated checklist with new locality records and notes on natural history. Reptiles & Amphibians, 29(1), 279-285 - get paper here
  • Visvanathan, Avinash C.; Sandeep Anne & Aditya Kesav Kolli 2017. New locality records of the Stout Sand Snake Psammophis longifrons Boulenger, 1890 (Reptilia: Squamata: Lamprophiidae) in Telangana, India. JoTT 9 (11): 10968–10970 - get paper here
  • Vyas, R. & Patel, H. 2013. Notes on the distribution and natural history of Psammophis longifrons BOULENGER 1896 (Serpents: Psammophiidae: Psammophiinae) in Gujarat, India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 20 (3): 217-222
  • Vyas, Raju 1987. Collection of a stout sand snake - Psammophis longifrons. Hamadryad 12 (2): 7-8 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Present conservation scenario of reptile fauna in Gujarat State, India. Indian Forester, Oct 2007: 1381-1394 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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