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Psammophis longifrons BOULENGER, 1890

IUCN Red List - Psammophis longifrons - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPsammophiidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Long Sand Racer, Stocky Sand Snake 
SynonymPsammophis longifrons BOULENGER 1890: 366
Psammophis longifrons — BOULENGER 1896: 165
Psammophis longifrons — SMITH 1943: 365
Psammophis longifrons — DAS 1996: 58
Psammophis longifrons — MURTHY 2010
Taphrometopon longifrons — WALLACH et al. 2014: 709 
DistributionIndia (Maharashtra, S Gujarat, S Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana)

Type locality: “Cuddapah Hills, British India” [= Kadapa, S Andhra Pradesh State, S India, 14°28’N, 78°49’E, 135 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.8.44 
CommentHabitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • D'Abreu, E.A. 1913. Occurrence of the Snake (Psammophis longifrons) at Nagpur. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 634 - get paper here
  • DESHMUKH, R.V., BADHEKAR, S. A., KATGUBE, S. D., LOHI, G. R. & MESHRAM, A. 2020. Erstnachweise versuchter Autophagie bei Psammophis longifrons und Rhabdophis plumbicolor aus Indien. Sauria 42 (3): 71-72 - get paper here
  • Deshmukh, Rahul V.; Sagar A. Deshmukh, Swapnil A. Badhekar, and Roshan Y. Naitame 2020. Snakes of Bhandara District, Maharashtra, Central India with notes on natural history. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (1): 10–17 - get paper here
  • Gandla, Chethan Kumar 2020. Additional locality record and first breeding evidence of Stout Sand Snake Psammophis longifrons Boulenger, 1896 (Reptilia, Squamata) from the Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India. Herpetology Notes 13: 769-772 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Patel, Harshil; and Raju Vyas 2019. Reptiles of Gujarat, India: Updated Checklist, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Herpetology Notes 12: 765-777 - get paper here
  • Patel, Harshil; Raju Vyas, Vaibhav Naik, Bhautik Dudhatra & Shantilal K. Tank 2018. Herpetofauna of the Northern Western Ghats of Gujarat, India. Zoology and Ecology, DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2018.1499237 - get paper here
  • Pawar Prabhakar R., Rokade Anil G., Supnekar Santosh P., Meshram Leena N., Pawar Namdeo B.<br />and Gavhane Usha V. 2020. Diversity and Distribution of Snakes in Adjoining Areas of Panvel, Navi Mumbai, West Coast of India. International Journal of Zoological Investigations 6 (2): 289-300 - get paper here
  • Premkumar, Suhas and Sharma, Vivek 2017. Geographic Distribution: Psammophis longifrons (Stocky Sand Racer). Herpetological Review 48 (1): 131 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Visvanathan, Avinash C.; Sandeep Anne & Aditya Kesav Kolli 2017. New locality records of the Stout Sand Snake Psammophis longifrons Boulenger, 1890 (Reptilia: Squamata: Lamprophiidae) in Telangana, India. JoTT 9 (11): 10968–10970 - get paper here
  • Vyas, R. & Patel, H. 2013. Notes on the distribution and natural history of Psammophis longifrons BOULENGER 1896 (Serpents: Psammophiidae: Psammophiinae) in Gujarat, India. Russ. J. Herpetol. 20 (3): 217-222
  • Vyas, Raju 1987. Collection of a stout sand snake - Psammophis longifrons. Hamadryad 12 (2): 7-8
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Present conservation scenario of reptile fauna in Gujarat State, India. Indian Forester, Oct 2007: 1381-1394 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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