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Psomophis genimaculatus (BOETTGER, 1885)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Spirit Ground Snake, Spirit Diminutive Snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Cabelo, Jararaca-Lançada 
SynonymLiophis (Lygophis) genimaculata BOETTGER 1885: 229
Rhadinaea genimaculata — BOULENGER 1894: 347
Rhadinaea genimaculata — WERNER 1913: 24
Liophis genimaculatus — AMARAL 1936
Liophis joberti — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 178
Psomophis genimaculatus — MYERS & CADLE 1994
Psomophis genimaculatus — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 33
Psomophis genimaculatus — MYERS & CADLE 2003
Psomophis genimaculatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 613
Psomophis genimaculatus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionS/E Bolivia (Llanos de Mojos, Chaco Boreal), SW Brazil, N Paraguay, Argentina (Formosa, Salta, Bermejo, Chaco) [HR 28: 52]

Type locality: Paraguay  
TypesLectotype, BMNH 1946.1.5.83, a 362 mm male, designated by Hoge, 1958: 222. 
CommentThe species of Psomophis are most likely to be confused with species of the "Rhadinaea" brevirostris group (sensu Myers). 
  • Amaral, A. do 1936. Collecta herpetologica no centro do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan 9 [1935]: 235-246 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1885. Liste von Reptilien und Batrachiern aus Paraguay. Zeitschr. Naturw. 58 (3): 213-248 - get paper here
  • Böhm, Stephan 2015. Eindrücke der Herpetofauna im Chaco Paraguays. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (1): 40-46 [2014] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1894. List of reptiles and batachians collected by Dr. T. Bohls near Asuncion, Paraguay. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 13: 342-348 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Guedes, Thaís B.; Ricardo J. Sawaya, Alexander Zizka, Shawn Laffan, Søren Faurby, R. Alexander Pyron, Renato S. Bérnils, Martin Jansen, Paulo Passos, Ana L. C. Prudente, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, Henrique B. Braz, Cristiano de C. Nogueira, Alexandre 2017. Patterns, biases and prospects in the distribution and diversity of Neotropical snakes. Global Ecol Biogeogr 00:1–8 - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. 2009. Ein Stück vom Paradies. Die Pouso Alegre im brasilianischen Pantanal aus Sicht eines Reptilienfreundes. Teil 2. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (77): 38-46 - get paper here
  • Kunz, Tobias Saraiva;<br />Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.,<br />Walter Luis Alves dos Santos & Paulo Afonso Hartmann 2007. Nota sobre a coleção herpetológica da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC). Biotemas, 20 (3): 127-132 - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Lions, Maria Luisa; Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz 1997. Geographic Distribution. Psomophis genimaculatus. Herpetological Review 28 (1): 52 - get paper here
  • Myers, C W. Cadle J E. 1994. A new genus for South American snakes related to Rhadinaea obtusa Cope (Colubridae) and resurrection of Taeniophallus Cope for the "Rhadinaea" brevirostris group. American Museum Novitates (3102): 1-33 - get paper here
  • Myers, C.W. & Cadle, J.E. 2003. On the snake hemipenis, with notes on Psomophis and techniques of eversion: a response to Dowling. Herpetological Review 34 (4): 295-302 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. E, & INGER, R. F. 1951. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hopkins-Branner expedition to Brazil. Fieldiana: Zoology 31: 439-465 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G.J. & Giraudo,A. 1997. El género Psomophis (Serpentes - Colubridae) en la Argentina. Cuadernos de Herpetología 11 (1): - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1913. Neue oder seltene Reptilien und Frösche des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Reptilien der Ostafrika-Expedition der Hamburger Geographischen Gesellschaft 1911/12. Leiter: Dr. E. Obst. Reptilien und Amphibien von Formosa. Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst., 30 [1912], 2. Beiheft: 1-39, 40-45, 45-51 - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T; Lehr, E. & Unger, J. 2001. Zur Kenntnis von Psomophis genimaculatus (BOETTGER 1885) in Paraguay unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Defensiv-Verhaltens. Herpetofauna 23 (132): 19-23 - get paper here
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