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Ptyas semicarinata (HALLOWELL, 1861)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Ryukyu Green Snake 
SynonymEurypholis semicarinatus HALLOWELL 1861: 493
Cyclophis nebulosus GÜNTHER 1868: 418
Ablabes semicarinatus — BOULENGER 1894: 278
Liopeltis semicarinata — STEJNEGER 1907: 340
Adiastema cervinum WERNER 1925 (fide SMITH 1928)
Liopeltis semicarinatus fritzei MAKI 1931
Opheodrys semicarinatus — KOBA 1958
Entechinus semicarinatus — CUNDALL 1981
Liopeltis semicarinatus — WELCH 1988
Entechinus semicarinatus — WELCH 1988
Cyclophiops semicarinatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 203
Ptyas semicarinatus — FIGUEROA et al. 2016 
DistributionJapan (Ryukyu Islands, Tokara Islands)  
TypesSyntypes: USNM 7316, BMNH 1946.1.5.40
Holotype: NSMT H02595 [fritzei] 
CommentSynonymy partly after WALLACH 1988, Amphibia-Reptilia 9: 62 and STEJNEGER 1907. According to STEJNEGER Cyclophiops semicarinatus and Dinodon semicarinatum are not the same. However, some of the synonyms might have been confused. The genus name Eurypholis Hallowell, "1860" [1861] is preoccupied by Eurypholis F. J. Pictet, "1849" (1850), a fossil species of fish.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cundall, D. 1981. Cranial osteology of the colubrid snake genus Opheodrys. Copeia 1981 (2): 353-371 - get paper here
  • Figueroa A, McKelvy AD, Grismer LL, Bell CD, Lailvaux SP 2016. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus. PLoS One 11 (9): e0161070.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161070 - get paper here
  • Fukuyama, I & Kodama, T; 2019. Cyclophiops semicarinatus (Ryukyu Green Snake) Diet. Herpetological Review 50 (2): 391-392 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Günther, A. 1868. Sixth account of new species of snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 1: 413-429 - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Koba,K. 1958. Herpetofauna of the Amami Group of the Loo Choo Islands (II). Mem. Fac. Educ., Kumamoto Univ. (6): 173-185 [in Japanese]
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Ota,H.; Shiroma,M. & Hikida,T. 1995. Geographic variation in the Endemic Ryukyu Green Snake Cyclophiops semicarinatus (Serpentes: Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 29 (1): 44-50 - get paper here
  • Sclater, J.A. 1950. Bionomic notes on some reptiles form Okinawa Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (12) 3: 113-116
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Toriba, M. 1993. Present location of the type specimens described by Maki. The Snake 25: 71-72
  • Toriba, Michihisa 1991. Karyotypes of two colubrine snakes, Entechinus semicarinatus and Dinodon orientalis. The Snake 23: 1-5
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner. F. 1925. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum in Wien. II. Teil. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Abt. l, 134: 45 - 66 - get paper here
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