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Python molurus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaPythonidae, Henophidia, Pythonoidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Indian Rock Python
G: Tigerpython 
SynonymColuber Molurus LINNAEUS 1758: 225
Boa Ordinata SCHNEIDER 1801: 260
Boa Cinerea SCHNEIDER 1801: 270
Boa Castanea SCHNEIDER 1801: 272
Boa Albicans SCHNEIDER 1801: 274
Boa Orbiculata SCHNEIDER 1801: 276
Coluber Boaeformis SHAW 1802: 511
Python bora DAUDIN 1803: 236 (nom. subst. pro Boa orbiculata)
Python tigris DAUDIN 1803: 241 (nom. subst. pro Boa castanea)
Python Jamesonii GRAY 1842
Python molurus — GRAY 1842
Python molurus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 417
P.[ython] trivittatus JERDON 1854: 526 (in error for Python bivittatus KUHL)
Python molurus — BOULENGER 1893: 87
Python molurus var. ocellatus WERNER 1899: 24
Python molurus var. intermedia WERNER 1899: 24
Python molurus var sondaica WERNER 1899: 24
Python molurus — WALL 1921: 48
Python molurus pimbura DERANIYAGALA 1945
Python molurus — TAYLOR 1965: 664
Python molurus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 177
Python molurus molurus — BARONE 2004
Python molurus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 620 
DistributionPakistan, India (Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Maharashtra (Mulshi – R.Kulkarni (pers. comm.), around Ghoshalkhamb – near Lonavla, Valvan – S. Choudhary (pers. comm.)) [A. Captain, pers. comm.], Punjab [Dino Aulakh, pers. comm.], Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha), Nepal

Type locality: “Indiis”  
ReproductionGROOT et al. (2003) and KUHN & SCHMIDT (2003) presented evidence that this species (actually bivittatus) may be parthenogenetic. 
TypesHolotype: NRM (NHRM) 5 (no. Lin.)
Holotype: NMSL [pimbura] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Diagnosis: Maxillary, palatine and pterygoid bones movable; trans-palatine present; pterygoid extending to quadrate or mandible; supratemporal present, attached scalelike to skull, suspending quadrate. Both jaws with teeth, anterior ones of both jaws elongated and curved; a coronoid present; vestiges of pelvis and legs terminating in a clawlike spur visible on each side of vent. Head with enlarged scales; part of labials bearing pits; scales numerous, in 60-75 scalerows. (Taylor 1965: 664) 
CommentSynonymy partly after KLUGE 1993. Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic names Broghammerus Hoser 2004, Shireenhoserus Hoser 2004 invalid and rejected their use instead of Python.

Subspecies: Python bivittatus bivittatus KUHL 1820 has been elevated to full species status by JACOBS et al. 2009.

Type species: Python molurus is the type species of the genus Python DAUDIN 1803, based on pI. 24 ("Pedda Poda B") and pI. 39 ("Bora") in Russell, 196: 53.

Distribution: Not in Bhutan, Myanmar, Vietnam (Yen Bai etc.), Sri Lanka, fide IUCN assessment (2021). Not on Borneo according to MALKMUS et al. (2002). Not in Thailand after bivittatus (which is in Thailand) has been split off (Hikida 2015, Wallach et al. 2014). Earlier reports from USA (Florida, e.g. MESHAKA et al. 2004) apparently refer to P. m. bivittatus which was split off into a full species in 2009. 
EtymologyNamed after the Greek “molouros” = some kind of snake, the identity of which is now uncertain (fide WALL 1921). 
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