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Rhinemys rufipes (SPIX, 1824)

IUCN Red List - Rhinemys rufipes - Least Concern, LR

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelinae, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: William’s Toadhead Turtle, Red-footed Amazon Side-necked Turtle
Portuguese: Cágado-Vermelho 
SynonymEmys rufipes SPIX 1824
Emys stenops SPIX 1824 (?)
Platemys Rufipes — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 435
Phrynops rufipes — GRAY 1844
Hydraspis rufipes — BOULENGER 1889
Rhinemys rufipes — BAUR 1893
Phrynops rufipes — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Rhinemys rufipes — MCCORD et al. 2001
Rhinemys rufipes — MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002
Rhinemys rufipes — SOUZA 2004
Rhinemys rufipes — BOUR & ZAHER 2005
Rhinemys (Phrynops) rufipes — BONIN et al 2006
Rhinemys rufipes — TTWG 2021 
DistributionNW Brazil (Amazonas, Pará), SE Colombia

Type locality: "Rio Solimoens" (=Rio Solimoes), South America.  
TypesHolotype: ZSM 3006/0 
CommentFor a color illustration and distribution map see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002.

Type Species: Emys rufipes SPIX 1824 is the type species of the genus Rhinemys WAGLER 1830. For a diagnosis of the genus see MCCORD et al. 2001.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers) 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “rufus” = red and “pes” = foot. 
  • Baur, G. 1893. Notes on the classification and taxonomy of the Testudinata. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 31: 210-225 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. & Zaher, H. 2005. A NEW SPECIES OF MESOCLEMMYS, FROM THE OPEN FORMATIONS OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL (CHELONII, CHELIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 45 (24): 295-311 - get paper here
  • Caputo, Francesco P. and Richard C. Vogt. 2008. Stomach Flushing Vs. Fecal Analysis: The Example of Phrynops rufipes (Testudines: Chelidae). Copeia 2008 (2): 301-305 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Lamar, W. W. & F. Medem 1982. Notes on the chelid turtle Phrynops rufipes in Colombia (Reptilia: Testudines: Chelidae). Salamandra 18 (3-4): 305-321 - get paper here
  • McCord, W. P., Joseph-Ouni, M.i & W. W. Lamar 2001. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49 (2): 715-764 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2002. Chelonian illustrations #1: South American Toadhead Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (21): 34-38 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Bemerkenswerte Süßwasserschildkröten aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48 (1): 71-82
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Calixto, P.O.; Mendes, L.R.; Gomes, R.; Galatti, U.; Trein, F.L.; Oliveira, F.S.; Ferreira, G.N. 2014. Guia fotográfico de identificação da herpetofauna da Floresta Nacional de Saracá-Taquera, Estado do Pará. Curitiba: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A.; 213 p. - get paper here
  • Morato, Sérgio Augusto Abrahão; Guilherme Nunes Ferreira; Michela Rossane Cavilha Scupino (eds.) 2018. Herpetofauna da Amazônia Central: Estudos na FLONA de Saracá-Taquera. Curitiba, Pr: STCP Engenharia de Projetos Ltda.; Porto Trombetas, Pa: MRN – Mineração Rio do Norte S.A., 2018. 210p. - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco L. 2004. Uma revisão sobre padrões de atividade, reprodução e alimentação de cágados brasileiros (Testudines, Chelidae) [A review on activity patterns, reproduction, and feeding habits in Brazilian chelid turtles (Testudines, Chelidae)]. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 15-28 - get paper here
  • Spix, J.B. von. 1824. Animalia nova; sive, Species novae Testudinum et Ranarum, quas in itinere per Brasiliam annis 1817-20 collegit et descripsit. F.S. Hübschmann, München. iv + 53 pp. - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • Viana, P.F.; Feldberg, E.; Cioffi, M.B.; de Carvalho, V.T.; Menezes, S.; Vogt, R.C.; Liehr, T.; Ezaz, T. 2020. The Amazonian Red Side-Necked Turtle Rhinemys rufipes (Spix, 1824) (Testudines, Chelidae) Has a GSD Sex-Determining Mechanism with an Ancient XY Sex Microchromosome System. Cells 9, 2088 - get paper here
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