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Rhinoclemmys funerea (COPE, 1875)

IUCN Red List - Rhinoclemmys funerea - Least Concern, LR

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Rhinoclemmydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Black Wood Turtle 
SynonymChelopus funereus COPE 1876: 154
Emys funerea — GÜNTHER 1885: 7
Geoemyda funerea — DUNN 1930
Geoemyda costaricensis KANBERG 1930
Rhinoclemmys funerea — KÖHLER 2000: 21
Rhinoclemmys funerea — TTWG 2014
Rhinoclemmys funerea — TTWG 2021 
DistributionS Honduras (Caribbean drainages from the Rio Coco southward),
Nicaragua, Panama (north of the Canal Zone), Costa Rica

Type locality: "Limón" (=Puerto Limón), Costa Rica.  
TypesSyntypes: USNM 45000, 45901, 46134, 46135. 
EtymologyThe name funerea is derived from the Latin funereus (pertaining to burial, funeral) and alludes to the black coloration on the head, neck, carapace, and plastron mentioned by Cope (1875) for the syntypes of this species. 
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. On the Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica with notes on the herpetology and ichthyology of Nicaragua and Peru. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia N.S. (2) 8: 93-183 [sometimes said to be published 1876 but see Murphy et al. 2007 for clarification]] - get paper here
  • Ernst, C H 1981. Rhinoclemmys Fitzinger, Neotropical forest terrapins. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 274: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C. H. 1980. Rhinoclemmys funerea. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 263: 1-2. - get paper here
  • Fornelino, Manuel Merchan 2004. Etnozoología, legislación y conservación de la tortuga Negra (Rhinoclemmys funerea) en Costa Rica. Boletín de la Asociación Herpetológica Española 15(2):120-126. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Henderson, C.L. 2010. Mammals, Amphibians, and Reptiles of Costa Rica - A field guide. University of Texas Press, Austin, 198 pp.
  • Hilje B, Chaves G, Klank J, Timmerman F, Feltham J, Gillingwater S, Piraino T, Rojas E 2020. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tirimbina Biological Reserve: a baseline for conservation, research and environmental education in a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. Check List 16(6): 1633-1655 - get paper here
  • Hofstra, Jelle 2002. Europe's first captive breeding of the Black Wood Turtle, Rhinoclemmys funerea Podarcis 3 (1): 21-27 - get paper here
  • Iverson, J.B. 1975. Notes on Courtship in Rhinoclemmys funerea Journal of Herpetology 9 (2): 249-250. - get paper here
  • Kabisch, K. 1997. Tortuguero - ein Naturparadies in Costa Rica. TI-Magazin 29 (136) 66-69
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • McLaughlin, Connor J. and C. Tristan Stayton 2016. Convergent Evolution Provides Evidence of Similar Radiations in Shell Shape in the Turtle Families Emydidae and Geoemydidae. Herpetologica 72 (2): 120-129. - get paper here
  • MURPHY R. W., SMITH A. and NGO A. 2007. The versions of Cope's Batrachia and Reptilia of Costa Rica. Bibliotheca Herpetologica 7 (1): - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier & José́ Gabriel Martínez-Fonseca 2023. An updated country checklist to the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. REVISTA NICARAGÜENSE DE BIODIVERSIDAD (100): 1-25 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • VARGAS-RAMÍREZ, MARIO, JOHN L. CARR, UWE FRITZ 2013. Complex phylogeography in Rhinoclemmys melanosterna: conflicting mitochondrial and nuclear evidence suggests past hybridization (Testudines: Geoemydidae). Zootaxa 3670: 238–254 - get paper here
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