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Riolama grandis RECODER, PRATES, MARQUES-SOUZA, CAMACHO, SALES-NUNES, VECHIO, GHELLERE, MCDIARMID & RODRIGUES, 2020

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Riolaminae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymRiolama grandis RECODER, PRATES, MARQUES-SOUZA, CAMACHO, SALES-NUNES, VECHIO, GHELLERE, MCDIARMID & RODRIGUES 2020
Riolama sp. nov. a — MCDIARMID et al., 1988: 669
Riolama sp. A (Neblina) — MCDIARMID & DONNELLY 2005: 515, 540
Riolama sp. A (Neblina) — KOK 2015: 501, fig. 7 
DistributionBrazil (N Amazonas)

Type locality: Bacia do Gelo’, in the highlands of the Serra da Neblina, Parque Nacional do Pico da Neblina, Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil (0°47’37”N, 66°01’25”W; 2.013 m elevation; datum WGS84)  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 116620, adult male (field number MTR 40320; Figs 7, 8A, 9A), collected on 18 November 2017 by M. T. Rodrigues, A. Camacho, F. Dal Vechio, I. Prates, J. M. Ghellere, R. Recoder and S. Marques-Souza.
Paratypes: AMNH R-178714 (field number RGZ 12174), an adult male from Camp II, 3.5 km north- east of Pico Phelps ( = Pico Neblina), Cerro de la Neblina, Departamento Río Negro, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela (00°50’00” N, 65°58’48” W; 2100 m a.s.l.), collected by Richard G. Zweifel on 25 February 1984; USNM 284488 (RWM 17682), an adult female, Camp II, 3.5 km north-east of Pico Phelps, Cerro de la Neblina, Departamento Río Negro, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela (00°50’12”N, 65°58’48” W; 2.085 m a.s.l), collected by Alfred L. Gardner on 31 January 1985; MZUSP 116629, 116628, two subadult females (field numbers MTR 40266, 40346), from ‘Base Velha’, Serra da Neblina, Parque Nacional Serra da Neblina, Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil (0°46’34”N, 66°00’57”W; 2010 m a.s.l.).
Paratopotypes: Seven individuals, two adult males, MZUSP 116622, 116626 (field number MTR 40302, 40314), two adult females, MZUSP 116621, 116623 (field numbers MTR 40269, 40304) and three subadult females, MZUSP 116624, 116625, 116627 (field numbers MTR 40308, 40310, 40373), from the same locality as the holotype, collected between 18 November and 22 November 2017, by the same collectors as the holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Following the generic diagnosis of Uzzell (1973), and comments by D. M. Harris and R. W. McDiarmid in Myers & Donnelly (2001), the new species is attributed to the genus Riolama by possessing well-developed limbs with five digits; digits laterally compressed with swollen tips, claws on all digits except for the first finger; tail slightly compressed laterally in section; head scales smooth, without striations; single frontonasal and frontal, paired prefrontals and frontoparietals; dorsal scales hexagonal to rectangular, imbricate, keeled; collar fold distinct; tympanum heavily pigmented and weakly depressed; oblique plicae rather than papillae on the posterior surfaces of the tongue. Additionally, the generic allocation is corroborated by molecular data.
Riolama grandis is distinguished from the remaining species of Riolama by the following combination of traits: (1) large size for the genus (maximum SVL 87.8 mm); (2) head long, HL 0.25 (± 0.01) times SVL; (3) dorsal scales at midbody rectangular, slightly rounded on posterior borders, slightly imbricate, weakly keeled, length 2.5–3.0 times width; (4) 30–34 transverse rows of dorsal scales; (5) 37–42 total scales around midbody: (6) eight to ten longitudinal rows of ventral scales; (7) 19–23 transverse rows of ventral scales; (8) 30 or more temporal scales; (9) seven to nine supralabials on each side; (10) six infralabials on each side; (11) four to six scales in the occipital row; (12) six to eight scales in the postoccipital row; (13) 12–15 femoral pores on each side; (14) long limbs, HLL 0.50 (± 0.03) times SVL, when limbs appressed to trunk, tip of fourth finger overlaps hindfoot to middle of lower leg; (15) 16–21 subdigital lamellae under fourth finger; (16) 23–30 subdigital lamellae under fourth toe; (17) tongue covered by scale-like papillae on the anterior half and by chevron-like plicae on the posterior half; (18) head and body dark brown (in alcohol), generally lacking cream spots dorsally and ventrally; (19) chin grey with irregular dark blotches and two long cream marks laterally; and (20) hemipenis with laterals representing a series of roughly equidistant and remarkably developed flounces, each bearing a single spine; presence of a distinctly enlarged hook-shaped spine at the centre of the hemipenial flounces row. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe specific epithet, grandis, is a Latin adjective, meaning ‘big’ or ‘large’, in reference to the larger body size of this new species compared to congeners. 
References
  • RECODER, RENATO;IVAN PRATES,SERGIO MARQUES-SOUZA, AGUSTÍN CAMACHO, PEDRO M. SALES-NUNES, FRANCISCO DAL VECHIO, JOSÉ MARIO GHELLERE, ROY W. MCDIARMID and MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2020. Lizards from the Lost World: two new species and evolutionary relationships of the Pantepui highland Riolama (Gymnophthalmidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society,XX: 1–27 - get paper here
 
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