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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Gymnophthalminae), Iphisini, Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Lagartinho-de-Folhiço 
Colobosaura sp. nov. — HOOGMOED et al. 2007:147
Rondonops biscutatus — SILVA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso)

Type locality: Pimenta Bueno (11°35’S, 61°10’W), RONDÔNIA, Brazil  
TypesHolotype: UNB (also as CHUNB for the Coleção Herpetológica) 18739 (field number GRCOLLI 06106); adult male; leg. G. R. Colli, F. G. R. França, A. M. Gainsbury, A. A. Garda and H. C. Wiederhecker; 1 August 2000. Paratypes. BRAZIL: MATO GROSSO: Alta Floresta: Parque Estadual do Cristalino (9°34'38.77"S, 55°55'18.49"W): CHUNB 47042, leg. J. P. Caldwell, G. R. Colli, F. G. R. França, D. L. P. Leite, D. B. Shepard, M. M. Vasconcellos and L. J. Vitt, 11 November 2005. Pará: Tapajós region, Jacareacanga-Itaituba: MPEG 31102, leg. Team UFPA/Herpetologia; Itaituba, APA Tapajós, Mina do Tocantinzinho (6°02'45.41"S, 56°18'13.38"W): MPEG 28555, leg. A. Lima, A. Araújo and S. R. dos Anjos, 23 October 2010; (6°4'58.68"S, 56°15'14.34"W): MPEG 28556, leg. J.O. Gomes and F. Chagas, 13 August 2010; (6°3'48.00"S, 56°16'58.68"W), MPEG 28557, leg. J. O. Gomes and F. Chagas, 9 August 2010; Mina do Palito (6°18'48.9"S, 55°47'02.7"W): MPEG 28558, leg. J. Gomes and A. D'Angiolella, 19 November 2010; (05°13'49.18"S, 56°55'91"W): MPEG 31095, leg. Team UFPA/ Herpetologia, 28 October 2013; (5°17'57.01"S, 56°58'52.57"W) MPEG 31096, leg. Team UFPA/Herpetologia, 11 January 2013; (5°22'41.99"S, 56°54'50.65"W): MPEG 31098, leg Team UFPA/Herpetologia, 16 August 2013; Jacareacanga (05°45'59.9”S, 57°1714.6”W): MPEG 31097, 31099, 31100-01, all leg. Team UFPA/Herpetologia, 23 January, 21–22 August 2013; Novo Progresso (7°08.061'S, 55°24.888'W): MPEG 24127–24130, leg. M. S. Hoogmoed, M. A. Ribeiro Jr., C. O. Araujo and D. G. Nascimento, 22–26 November 2005. RONDÔNIA: Alta Floresta d’Oeste, Parque Estadual do Corumbiara (12°54'21.10"S, 62°4'6.90"W): CHUNB 52868, leg. R. J. Bosque and G. R. Colli, 9 March 2008; Cerejeiras, Parque Estadual do Corumbiara (13°6'47.87"S, 61°28'37.65"W): CHUNB 50539–50569, leg. R. J. Bosque and G. R. Colli, August 2007; Guajará-Mirim (10°46’S, 65°20’W): CHUNB 23454–23458, leg. G. R. Colli, G. C. Costa, A. M. Gainsbury, A. A. Garda, F. P. Werneck and H. C. Wiederhecker, December 2000–January 2001; Pimenta Bueno (11°35’S, 61á10’W): CHUNB 18738, leg. F. G. R. França, A. M. Gainsbury, A. A. Garda and H. C. Wiederhecker, 31 July 2000. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Size moderate, 65 mm maximum SVL; intact tail long, up to about three times SVL. Limbs slender, pentadactyl; first toe reduced, lacking a claw. Ear openings and eyelids distinct. Frontonasal single; prefrontals, frontoparietals, parietals, and interparietal present; parietals longer than wide; three supraoculars. Collar fold absent; three pairs of chinshields, posteriormost reduced. Nuchals very wide, smooth, imbricate, in two longitudinal rows from nape to arm level. Occipitals absent. Dorsal scales posterior to arm level narrower than nuchals, lanceolate, imbricate, strongly keeled, and mucronate. Ventrals identical to nuchals, smooth, imbricate, wider than long, forming two longitudinal rows. Males with a continuous series of pores, with no gap between preanal and femoral pores; females without femoral pores.
Rondonops differs from all other genera of Gymnophthalmidae by having an anterior series of smooth, imbricate, and extremely wide nuchals forming two longitudinal and 6–10 transverse rows, followed, posterior of the arm level, by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other gymnophthalmid genera, except Iphisa, by the presence of only two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The following morphological characters ally Rondonops to Alexandresaurus, Iphisa, Colobosaura, Acratosaura, Stenolepis, Caparaonia, Colobodactylus, and Heterodactylus: interclavicle cruciform, with central area extremely reduced; lateral process of interclavicle long, straight, and pointed; glossohyal fused to basihyal; nasals in narrow contact with premaxilla, wide, divergent, and in contact at midline, but broadly separated anteriorly by the subtriangular lamina of premaxillary; first finger reduced (lost in Heterodactylus and Colobodactylus), without a claw (Rodrigues et al. 2009a). As currently defined, the Chirocolini (former Heterodactylini) contains Caparaonia, Colobodactylus, and Heterodactylus, whereas Alexandresaurus, Acratosaura, Colobosaura, Iphisa, and Stenolepis belong to the Iphisini (Rodrigues et al. 2009a). Our phylogenetic analyses (below) clearly indicate that Rondonops is part of the clade Iphisini. The following unique characters of Iphisini are present in Rondonops: lateral expansions of the parietal and shape of postfrontal. Rondonops and the other Iphisini differ from the Chirocolini by the shape and size of parietal scale, condition of supratemporal fenestra and postorbital width (Fig. 4). In addition to molecular characters, the Iphisini and Chirocolini differ by a more elongate body and higher degree of limb reduction in the latter. Rondonops and the other Iphisini differ from the Gymnophthalmini by possessing eyelids, which are absent in all Gymnophthalmini, except Tretioscincus (Avila-Pires 1995; Rodrigues 1991).
Among Iphisini, Rondonops differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); dorsal trunk scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsal trunk scales broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). It differs from other Iphisini (Alexandresaurus, Colobosaura, Acratosaura, and Stenolepis) and all Chirocolini by the presence of very wide ventrals disposed in two longitudinal rows (ventrals narrower, in four or six longitudinal rows), and 6–10 transverse series of smooth, wide nuchals disposed in two longitudinal rows (nuchals narrower, not forming two longitudinal rows). Rondonops further differs from Stenolepis by having prefrontals (absent), and from Acratosaura, by having only two pairs of enlarged chinshields (three). Among Chirocolini, Rondonops differs from Colobodactylus and Heterodactylus by having a distinct first finger (absent), prefrontal scales (absent), and parietals longer than wide (wider than long). From Heterodactylus it differs by having an enlarged interparietal (absent or vestigial), a distinct ear opening (absent), and a typical lacertiform body (extremely elongate). Rondonops differs from Caparaonia by having only two pairs of enlarged chinshields (three).

Diagnosis (species). Body robust; tail up to 3 times longer than body. Limbs pentadactyl, slender; first finger lacking claw. Ear openings and eyelids distinct. Frontonasal single; prefrontals, frontal, frontoparietals, parietals and interparietal present; parietals longer than wide. Collar fold absent. Three pairs of chinshields; anteriormost two enlarged, posteriormost reduced. Three supraoculars, anteriormost smallest. Dorsals (including nuchals) in 26–32 rows; anteriorly smooth, wide, imbricate, with rounded posterior margins, in two longitudinal and 6–10 transverse regular rows; posteriorly to arm level becoming progressively narrower, mucronate, with broad and flat keels, and then lanceolate, strongly keeled, imbricate and mucronate. Occipitals absent. Ventrals very wide, smooth, imbricate, in two regular longitudinal and 14–20 transverse rows, identical in size and shape to nuchals. Scales around midbody 23–30; subdigital lamellae under finger IV and toe IV, respectively 11–15 and 16–20. Fingers and toes short and robust. Males with a continuous series of 17–22 pores, with no gap between preanal and femoral pores; femoral and preanal pores absent in females. 
CommentType species: Rondonops biscutatus COLLI et al. 2015 is the type species of the genus Rondonops COLLI et al. 2015. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is an adjective formed from Bi (from the Latin: two) and scutatus (from the Latin: shield-shaped). The name refers to the arrangement of nuchals in two longitudinal rows, characteristic of the genus, but first noted in this species.

Named after Cândido Mariano da Silva Rondon + ops (from the Latin: power, might, strength, ability). The genus-group name is masculine, according to Article The name refers to the accomplishments of Marshal Rondon (May 5, 1865–January 19, 1958), a Brazilian military officer who dedicated his life to the exploration and integration of remote areas of the Brazilian territory, especially of southwestern Amazonia, and to the peaceful integration of indigenous peoples of Brazil (Conselho Editorial do Senado Federal 2003). In 1910, he was nominated the first director of Brazil's Indian Protection Bureau (SPI/FUNAI) and, in 1914, conducted, with Theodore Roosevelt, a scientific expedition to explore the River of Doubt, now Roosevelt River (Diacon 2004; Roosevelt 1914). The Brazilian state of Rondônia, where we collected the first specimens of Rondonops, was also named after him. 
  • COLLI, GUARINO R.; MARINUS S. HOOGMOED, DAVID C. CANNATELLA, JOSÉ CASSIMIRO, JERRIANE OLIVEIRA GOMES, JOSÉ MÁRIO GHELLERE, PEDRO M. SALES-NUNES, KÁTIA C. M. PELLEGRINO, PATRICIA SALERNO, SERGIO MARQUES DE SOUZA & MIGUEL TREFAUT RODRIGUES 2015. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata). Zootaxa 4000 (4): 401–427 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • RIBEIRO-JÚNIOR, MARCO A. & SILVANA AMARAL 2017. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae. Zootaxa 4269 (2): 151-196 - get paper here
  • Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A. & Silvana Amaral 2016. Diversity, distribution, and conservation of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Biodiversity, 2:1, 195-421 - get paper here
  • Silva-Diogo O, Costa TM, Silva-Alves VD, Fermiano EC, Mudrek JR, Brum BR, Gusmão AC, Nogueira OMA, Barbosa APD, Silva JSH, Carniello MA, Ignácio ÁRA, Muniz CC, Santos-Filho M, Silva DJ 2019. New records amplify the geographical distribution of Rondonops biscutatus Colli et al., 2015 (Squamata, Sauria, Gymnophthalmidae) into the Paraguay river basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Check List 15(5): 747-751 - get paper here
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