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Saara hardwickii (GRAY, 1827)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Uromastycinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Hardwick's spiny-tailed lizard, Indian spiny-tailed lizard
G: Indischer Dornschwanz 
SynonymUromastyx hardwicki GRAY in HARDWICKE & GRAY 1827: 219
Uromastyx griseus CUVIER 1829: 34
Uromastyx reticulatus CUVIER 1829: plate 6
Uromastix Hardwickii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 546
Uromastix griseus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 548
Centrocercus similis FITZINGER 1843
Uromastix hardwickii — BOULENGER 1885: 408
Uromastyx hardwickii — SMITH 1935: 244
Uromastyx hardwickii — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 110
Uromastyx hardwickii — WILMS 2007
Saara hardwickii — WILMS et al. 2009 
DistributionPakistan, India (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh), Afghanistan (area bordering Pakistan)

Type locality: Kanauj district, U.P.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.14.44, male, Plains of Kanouge, Hindustan, India, pres. General Hardwicke, without date. 
DiagnosisOriginal definition (genus Saara): Head very short, broad, much arched. Body depressed, with a fold on each side of the back. Scales minute, equal. Tail short, broad, depressed; upper part with cross bands of compressed, conical scales, separated by other rings of granular and smooth square scales; beneath covered with square, smooth, imbricate scales. Femoral pores distinct (GRAY 1845).

Diagnosis (genus Saara): Acrodont dentition, with the premaxillary bone forming in adult specimens a sharp, tooth-like structure replacing the incisive teeth. Tail scalation arranged in distinct whorls, which are separated by 1–6 rows of intercalary scales dorsally.

Differential diagnosis (species): This taxon is distinguished from S. asmussi and S. loricata by having 2–6 keeled in- tercalary scales separating each tail whorl dorsally (1–2 rows of unkeeled intercalary scales in S. asmussi and S. loricata). 
CommentType Species: Uromastyx hardwicki GRAY in HARDWICKE & GRAY 1827 is the type species of the genus Saara GRAY 1845. WILMS et al. 2009 resurrected the genus Saara GRAY 1845 for Uromastyx asmussi, U. hardwickii, and U. loricata. 
EtymologyNamed after Major-General Thomas Hardwicke (1756-1835) who served in the Bengal army of the Honourable East India Company. He was an amateur naturalist and collector who worked with Gray. 
  • ALI, Waqas; Arshad JAVID, Saddam HUSSAIN, Ali HUSSAIN and Syed Mohsin BUKHARI 2020. Morphological Variations, Distribution and Population Estimation of Indian Spiny Tailed Lizard (Uromastyx hardwickii Gray, 1827) from District Bahawalnagar, Punjab, Pakistan. Asian Herpetological Research 11 (3): 257-262; DOI:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.190047 - get paper here
  • Ardesana, R., R. Jhala & M. Bharad 2018. A preliminary report on reptiles of Khirasara Vidi, Rajkot District, Gujarat, India. Reptile Rap#180. In: Zoo’s Print 33(2): 17:22 - get paper here
  • Baig, KJ, Masroor, R., and Arshad, M. 2008. Biodiversity and ecology of the herpetofauna of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Russ. J. Herpetol. 15 (3): 193-205 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. J. L. N. F. D. 1829. Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406 - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil & Abhijit Das 2017. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Reptiles of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 176 pp.
  • Das, Sanjay Keshari; Manish Joshi, Somanath Sahoo 2015. On the population status of Indian spiny-tailed lizard, Saara hardwickii outside the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, with a preliminary report on the herpetofauna of Sariska National Park. Herpetology Notes 8: 51-54 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J.V. 1888. Ein körnerfressendes Reptil. Zool. Anz. 278 (11): 115-115
  • George, J. C. 1956. The post-cranial osteology of Uromastyx hardwickii (Gray). Journal of Animal Morphology and Physiology 3 (1): 25-35
  • Ghaedi, Z., Badri, S., Vaissi, R. S. P., Javidkar, M., & Ahmadzadeh, F. 2020. The Zagros Mountains acting as a natural barrier to gene flow in the Middle East: more evidence from the evolutionary history of spiny-tailed lizards (Uromasticinae: Saara). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society - get paper here
  • Gray. J. E. 1834. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major - General Hardwicke. Vol. 2. London (1833-1834): 263 pp., 95 plates - get paper here
  • Guérin-Méneville, F. E. 1829. Iconographie du Régne Animal de G. Cuvier, ou répresentation d'aprés Nature de l'une des Espèces les plus remarquables, et souvent non encore figurés de chaque Genre d'Animaux. Avec un text descriptif [...]. Paris & London, [Vol.] 1, Plates i-xxx, [Vol.] 3, i-xvi + 1-576. (Note: reptile plates are numbered separately from other taxa.) - get paper here
  • Hamid, H. N., Rais, M., Arif, M., & Noor, R. 2020. Amphibians and Reptiles of Sheikh Baddin National Park, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Diversity, Threats and Conservation Prospects. Pakistan J. Zool. 53(2): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Hardwicke, Thomas & Gray, J.E. 1827. A synopsis of the species of saurian reptiles, collected in India by Major-General Hardwicke. Zoological Journal, London 3: 213-229 - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2003. CHECKLIST AND KEY TO THE LIZARDS OF PAKISTAN. Pakistan J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. (1): 1-25 - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. & SCHUSTER,N. 1999. Agamen, 2. Aufl. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 120 pp. - get paper here
  • Masroor, R. 2012. A Contribution to the Herpetology of Northern Pakistan. SSAR, Ithaca [review in JoTT 4(6): 2670] - get paper here
  • Moazen,M.; N. Curtis, S.E. Evans, P. O’Higgins, M.J. Fagan 2008. Rigid-body analysis of a lizard skull: Modelling the skull of Uromastyx hardwickii. Journal of Biomechanics 41: 1274–1280 - get paper here
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Parshad, B. 1913. Note on the Spiny tailed Lizard (Uromastyx hardwickii). J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 23: 370 - get paper here
  • Patel, Harshil; and Raju Vyas 2019. Reptiles of Gujarat, India: Updated Checklist, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Herpetology Notes 12: 765-777 - get paper here
  • Rais, Muhammad; Ayesha Akram, Syeda Maria Ali, Muhammad Arslan Asadi, Misbah Jahangir, Muhammad Jawad Jilani, <br />and Maqsood Anwar 2015. Qualitative Analysis of Factors Influencing the Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Herpetofauna in Chakwal Tehsil (Chakwal District), Punjab, Pakistan. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3) - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Sunderraj, S.F. Wesley & Latchoumanan Muthu Andavan 2010. Mortality of Spiny-lailed Lizard Uromastyx hardwickii Hardwicke & Gray, 1827 in the Kachchh district of Gujarat. Reptile Rap (9): 10 - get paper here
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 1990. Notes on capture of the Spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx hardwickii) in Gujarat. Hamadryad 15: 28
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Present conservation scenario of reptile fauna in Gujarat State, India. Indian Forester, Oct 2007: 1381-1394 - get paper here
  • Wilms, T. 2001. Dornschwanzagamen, 2. Aufl. Herpeton, Offenbach, 142 pp. - get paper here
  • Wilms, T. 2007. Dornschwanzagamen der Gattung Uromastyx - Einführung in Taxonomie und Ökologie einer auf Wüsten spezialisierten Echsengruppe. Draco 8 (31): 4-19 - get paper here
  • Wilms, Thomas; Böhme, Wolfgang; Wagner, Philipp; Lutzmann, Nicolà; Andreas Schmitz 2009. On the Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Genus Uromastyx Merrem, 1820 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae: Uromastycinae) – Resurrection of the Genus Saara Gray, 1845. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 56: 55-99 - get paper here
  • Wilms,T. 1995. Dornschwanzagamen. MÜNSTER: 130 (ISBN 3-9802892-5-7) - get paper here
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