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Salvadora mexicana (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Salvadora mexicana - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Mexican Patchnose Snake
S: Cuijera 
SynonymZamenis mexicanus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 695
Salvadora mexicana — GÜNTHER 1863: 349
Coluber mexicanus — GARMAN 1884: 45
Zamenis mexicanus — BOULENGER 1893: 392
Zamenis mexicanus — WERNER 1913: 22
Salvadora mexicana — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Salvadora mexicana — LINER 1994
Salvadora mexicana — LINER 2007
Salvadora mexicana — WALLACH et al. 2014: 660 
DistributionMexico (Michoacan, Nayarit, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Colima, Jalisco, México, Morelos, Puebla, Zacatecas)

Type locality: Cape Corrientes, Jalisco.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 3585 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Rostral elongated; 9 supralabials, 3 supralabials in contact with the eye, the fourth, fifth and sixth; 10–11 infralabials; a single preocular; a single loreal scale; prenasal in contact with the second supralabial; a second pair of chinshields in contact with each other or separated by a row of scales; 182–197 ventrals; 125–145 subcaudals; tail length is 31 to 42% of total length; 15 + 3 maxillary teeth. Color pattern on the first third of the body consists of mottled transverse patches becoming transverse bars on the neck; the back of the head is dark with pale longitudinal patch in the center; the rest of the body has pale vertebral line flanked by two dark dorsolateral lines; and two dark lateral lines.
This species differs from its congeners by having a single preocular scale; tail length is approximately one third of the total length (31–42%); and by having four dark longitudinal lines interrupted on the first third of the body where they are replaced by transverse bands or patches (HERNÁNDEZ-JIMÉNEZ et al. 2021). 
CommentDistribution: endemic to Mexico. See map in HERNÁNDEZ-JIMÉNEZ et al. 2021: Fig. 4. 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Bañuelos-Alamillo, Jorge A.; Iván T. Ahumada-Carrillo, Gustavo E. Quintero-Díaz , Rubén A. Carbajal-Márquez, 2019. The Mexican Patch-nosed Snake, Salvadora mexicana (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854; Squamata: Colubridae): a new state record for Zacatecas, Mexico, and a new prey species. Cuad. herpetol. 33 (1): - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Camarillo Rangel, J.L. 1983. New herpetological records from the state of Mexico. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 19(2):39-46 - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175 - get paper here
  • Cobarrubias, Edgar Flores; Daniel Cruz-Sáenz, and David Lazcano 2012. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Western Mexico 6: Amphibians and Reptiles of Hostotipaquillo, Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 47 (2):21-26 - get paper here
  • Davis, William B.; Smith, Hobart M. 1953. Snakes of the Mexican state of Morelos. Herpetologica 8: 133-149 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Hall, Charles W. 1951. Notes on a small herpetological collection from Guerreo. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (4): 201-212 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Jadin, R. & García-Vázquez, U.O. 2008. SALVADORA MEXICANA (Mexican patchnose snake): COMBAT BEHAVIOR. Herpetological Bulletin (104): 39-40 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the State of Mexico, Mexico with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 953: 137-159 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the herpetofauna of Morelos, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 941: 121-144 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Pierce LJS, Painter CW 2020. The amphibians and reptiles of Colima, Mexico, with a summary of their conservation status. ZooKeys 927: 99-125 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Loc-barragán J.A., D., Lazcano y G.A Woolrich-Piña. 2018. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Nayarit, Mexico 2: Amphibians and Reptiles of the Municipality of Compostela. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 53(10): 205-212
  • Mata-Silva, V., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, A. Rocha, L. D. Wilson, P. R. Simón-Salvador, C. Mayoral-Halla, B. F. Montiel-Altamirano, and A. Ramírez-Bautista. 2017. New herpetofaunal distribution records for the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(3): 679–683 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V., García-Grajales, J. & Johnson, J. D. 2012. Geographic distribution: Salvadora mexicana (Mexican patch-nosed snake). Herpetological Review 43: 622-623 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, V; Rocha, A; Mata-González, S; Ramírez-Bautista, A; Berriozabal-Islas, C; García-Padilla, E; Johnson, J D & Wilson, L D; 2019. First municipality records and additional information on the herpetofauna of Oaxaco, Mexico. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 533-536 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P.;Shannon, Frederick A. 1947. Notes on amphibians and reptiles of Michoacan, Mexico. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 31 (9): 63-85
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1938. Notes on the snakes of the genus Salvadora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 25 (12): 229-237 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. & Taylor, Edward H. 1945. An annotated checklist and key to the snakes of Mexico. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (187): iv + 1-239 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1913. Neue oder seltene Reptilien und Frösche des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Reptilien der Ostafrika-Expedition der Hamburger Geographischen Gesellschaft 1911/12. Leiter: Dr. E. Obst. Reptilien und Amphibien von Formosa. Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst., 30 [1912], 2. Beiheft: 1-39, 40-45, 45-51 - get paper here
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson. 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884 - get paper here
  • Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A, Paulino Ponce-Campos, Jesús Loc-Barragán, Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson, Elí García-Padilla and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Nayarit, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 376-448 - get paper here
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