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Scaphiodontophis annulatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Scaphiodontophis annulatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Sibynophiinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesScaphiodontophis annulatus annulatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854)
Scaphiodontophis annulatus dugandi ROZE 1969
Scaphiodontophis annulatus nothus TAYLOR & SMITH 1943
Scaphiodontophis annulatus hondurensis (SCHMIDT 1936) 
Common NamesE: Guatemala Neckband Snake
S: Culebra Añadida de Guatemala 
SynonymEnicognathus annulatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 335
Enicognathus annulatus — JAN 1866
Diadophis annulatus — GARMAN 1884: 70
Polyodontophis annulatus — BOULENGER 1893: 189
Henicognathus venustissimus — GÜNTHER 1895
Sibynophis zeteki DUNN 1930: 329
Sibinophis annulatus — DITMARS 1934
Scaphiodontophis carpicinctus TAYLOR & SMITH 1943 (fide WILSON & MEYER 1982)
Scaphiodontophis zeteki — TAYLOR & SMITH 1943: 317
Scaphiodontophis cyclurus TAYLOR & SMITH 1943: 318
Scaphiodontophis albonuchalis TAYLOR & SMITH 1943: 323
Sibynophis albonuchalis — MERTENS 1952
Scaphiodontophis albonuchalis — BRATTSTROM & ADIS 1952
Scaphiodontophis albonuchalis — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956: 13
Scaphiodontophis cyclurus — MARTIN 1958
Scaphiodontophis zcteki nothus — STUART 1963: 114
Scaphiodontophis zeteki zeteki — ROZE 1969
Scaphiodontophis annulatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 269
Scaphiodontophis zeteki — ALVAREZ DEL TORO 1982
Scaphiodontophis annulatus zeteki — SMITH et al. 1986
Scaphiodontophis annulatus annulatus — SMITH et al. 1986
Scaphiodontophis annulatus — LINER 1994
Scaphiodontophis annulatus — LINER 2007
Scaphiodontophis annulatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 662

Scaphiodontophis annulatus dugandi ROZE 1969
Scaphiodontophis dugandi ROZE 1969
Scaphiodontophis annulatus “dugandi” — HENDERSON 1984
Scaphiodontophis annulatus dugandi — SMITH et al. 1986
Scaphiodontophis annulatus dugandi — HARVEY 1999
Scaphiodontophis dugandi — PÁEZ et al. 2002

Scaphiodontophis annulatus hondurensis (SCHMIDT 1936)
Sibynophis annulatus hondurensis SCHMIDT 1936: 48
Scaphiodontophis annulatus hondurensis — TAYLOR & SMITH 1943: 314
Scaphiodontophis annulatus hondurensis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 270
Scaphiodontophis annulatus hondurensis — MEHRTENS 1987: 203

Scaphiodontophis annulatus nothus TAYLOR & SMITH 1943
Scaphiodontophis nothus TAYLOR & SMITH 1943: 320
Scaphiodontophis nothus — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956: 14
Scaphiodontophis zeteki nothus — ROZE 1969
Scaphiodontophis annulatus nothus — SMITH et al. 1986
Scaphiodontophis zeteki nothus — SAVAGE & SLOWINSKI 1996 
DistributionMexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Puebla, Hidalgo), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,
Colombia [Castro,F. (pers. comm.)]

cyclurus (invalid): Mexico (Tamaulipas etc.);

dugandi: Colombia (Tolima, Antioquia); Type locality: “COLOMBIA,Departamento de Antioquia, region de Urabá, cerca de Turbo, río Currulao, 20 metros de altitud; Lat. 8° N., Long. 76° 40' W.”

hondurensis: Honduras; Type locality: Portillo Grande, Yoro, 4100 ft. elevation, Honduras.

nothus: Mexico (Veracruz); Type locality: Potrero Viejo,Veracruz, Mexico.

Type locality: Coban, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 7283, a 390 mm (SVL) specimen
Holotype: AMNH 95932 [dugandi]
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) [cyclurus]
Holotype: USNM 110411 [carpicinctus]
Holotype: USNM 110412 [nothus]
Holotype: MCZ R-38703 [hondurensis]
Holotype: MCZ 29060 [zeteki]
Holotype: USNM 110413 [Scaphiodontophis albonuchalis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): “This group of species, which has been associated with Sibynophis, differs from members of that genus in having a larger series of unequal maxillary teeth (52 to 56; known maximum in Sibynophis, 46), arranged in diads or triads of unequal sizes; a much larger dorsal, as well as a medial ectopterygoid process (the process is very low or lacking in Sibynophis). Most of the species of Sibynophis have normally pointed teeth; subpunctatus from Ceylon, however, has somewhat spatulate teeth; forms associated with Scaphiodontophis all have spatulate teeth, so far as known. All Sibynophis have a uniform or striped coloration; all Scaphiodontophis have black, yellow and red transverse spots or bars on some part or all of the body while the remainder tends to be uniform grayish with darker dots (save sumichrasti, which is uniformly colored with black dots forming lines and lacks the black, yellow and red bars). [from TAYLOR & SMITH 1943]. For a more recent diagnosis see SAVAGE & SLOWINSKI 1996.

Diagnosis (dugandi): “El Scaphiodontophis dugandi se diferencia de todas las demas especies de este genero pOl' tener en la parte delantera del cuerpo y en la cola una coloracion de bandas transversales rojas, negras y hlancas, mientras que la parte intermedia del cuerpo es de color gris * manchado de oscuro y con tres lineas longitudinales de manchitas oscuras, Ademas, posee menos dientes maxilares (39-41) que las otras especies conocidas (43-46) (Roze 1969).

Diagnosis (nothus). Entire body, but not tail, banded; twelve white bands (including nuchal collar) in type; black head cap followed in succes- sion by a white neck band, a narrow black band, a broad red band, and a succeeding series of black, white, black and red bands to end of body; tail gray, with three irregular, zigzag lines (Taylor & Smith 1943: 320). 
CommentSynonymy after VILLA et al. 1988 and PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Type species: Enicognathus annulatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854 is the type species of the genus Scaphiodontophis TAYLOR & SMITH 1943. TAYLOR & SMITH (1943) assigned the following species to this genus: venustissimus, annulatus, hondurensis, nothus, albocinctus, zeteki, cyclurus and carpicinctus. See Leviton & Munstermann 1956 for a list of diagnostic characters of Scaphiodontophis.

Distribution: Specimens of this species from Costa Rica and Panama are now assigned to Scaphiodontophis venustissimus, hence not in Panama or Costa Rica (e.g. reported by Solorzano 2004).

Mimicry: Scaphiodontophis annulatus mimicks Micrurus limbatus and M. diastema (TORRE-LORANCA et al. 2006).

Subspecies: Harvey 1999 mentioned the “dugandi” pattern, which may be an aberration. See Smith et al. 1986 for a key to the subspecies of annulatus, in which they recognized 5 subspecies (including S. a. venustissimus, now a valid species). 
EtymologyNamed after the diminutive form (“annul-”) of Latin “anus” = ring. 
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