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Sceloporus undulatus (BOSC & DAUDIN, 1801)

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Sceloporinae; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesSceloporus undulatus elongatus STEJNEGER 1890
Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus MASLIN 1956
Sceloporus undulatus garmani BOULENGER 1882
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus (GREEN 1818)
Sceloporus undulatus speari SMITH, CHISZAR, LEMOS-ESPINAL 1995
Sceloporus undulatus tedbrowni SMITH, BELL, APPLEGARTH & CHISZAR 1992
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus (BOSC & DAUDIN 1801) 
Common NamesE: Fence Lizard
E : Northern Plateau Lizard [elongatus]
E: Red-lipped Plateau Lizard [erythrocheilus]
E: Northern Prairie Lizard [garmani]
E: Northern Fence Lizard [hyacinthinus]
E: Spear's Prairie Lizard [speari]
E: Mescalero Prairie Lizard, Mescalero Dunes Fence Lizard [tedbrowni]
E: Southern Fence Lizard, Eastern Fence Lizard [undulatus]
S: Vejore Oriental de Cerca 
SynonymStellio undulatus BOSC & DAUDIN in SONNINI & LATREILLE 1801: 40
Lacerta undulata BOSC 1801
Stellio undulatus LATREILLE 1801: 40 (fide LINER 1994)
Agama undulata DAUDIN 1802: 384 (fide DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837)
Tropidolepis Undulatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 298
Tropidolepis Undulatus — DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 270
Sceloporus floridanus BAIRD 1859: 254
Sceloporus undulatus — BOULENGER 1885: 227
Sceloporus spinosus floridanus — ALLEN 1932
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — SMITH 1938
Sceloporus undulatus — STEBBINS 1985: 131
Sceloporus undulatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 106
Sceloporus undulatus — LINER 1994
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — BELL et al. 2003

Sceloporus undulatus elongatus STEJNEGER 1890: 111
Sceloporus graciosus elongatus — BURT 1933
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge tristichus) elongatus — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus elongatus — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus undulatus elongatus — BELL et al. 2003

Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus MASLIN 1956
Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus — MCCOY 1975
Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus — SMITH et al. 1991
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge tristichus) erythrocheilus — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus undulatus erythrocheilus — BELL et al. 2003

Sceloporus undulatus garmani BOULENGER 1882
Sceloporus undulatus garmani — SMITH et al. 1991
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge consobrinus) garmani — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus garmani — BARTLETT & BARTLETT 1999: 232
Sceloporus undulatus garmani — CROTHER 2000

Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus (GREEN 1818)
Lacerta hyacinthina GREEN 1818: 349.
Lacerta fasciata GREEN 1818: 349
Lopherpes dicyanelus RAFINESQUE 1832: 143-144 (fide SCHMIDT 1953)
Stellio dicyanelus RAFINESQUE 1832: 143-144 (fide SCHMIDT 1953)
Sceloporus thayerii BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 127 (fide BELL et al. 2003)
Sceloporus thayerii BOCOURT 1874 (fide SMITH 1939)
Sceloporus undulatus thayerii — FORCE 1928
Sceloporus undulatus thayerii — TAYLOR 1929: 64
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — MACMAHON 1962
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — COOPER 1965
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge undulatus) hyacinthinus — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — BARTLETT & BARTLETT 1999: 233
Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus — CROTHER 2000

Sceloporus undulatus speari SMITH, CHISZAR, LEMOS-ESPINAL 1995
Sceloporus undulatus speari — BELL et al. 2003
Sceloporus undulatus speari — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Sceloporus undulatus tedbrowni SMITH, BELL, APPLEGARTH & CHISZAR 1992
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge consobrinus) tedbrowni — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus tedbrowni — CROTHER 2000
Sceloporus undulatus tedbrowni — BELL et al. 2003

Sceloporus undulatus undulatus (BOSC & DAUDIN 1801)
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — ALLEN 1932
Sceloporus undulatus (exerge undulatus) undulatus — SMITH et al. 1992
Sceloporus undulatus undulatus — CROTHER 2000 
DistributionUSA (Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, S Wyoming, S South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Mississippi, S Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, S Illinois, S Indiana, S Ohio, Wisconsin, S Pennsylvania, Kentucky, West Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, Florida),
Mexico (N/E Chihuahua, Coahuila, N Zacatecas),
Canada (British Columbia [fide BOULENGER 1887])

elongatus: USA (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, Utah [fide BURT 1933]). Type Locality: Moa Ave, Painted Desert, Arizona.

erythrocheilus: USA (Colorado). Type Locality: Nineteen mi E Model, Purgatoire River, Las Animas County, Colorado.

floridanus: USA (Florida); Type Locality: Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida.

garmani: USA (E New Mexico, South Dakota, W Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Wyoming, Kansas, Nebraska). Type Locality: "Dacota", in original description; restricted to "Near Pine Ridge, South Dakota", by Stejneger and Barbour (1933).

hyacinthinus: USA (Missouri, West Virginia, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, New Jersey, Virginia, etc.); Type Locality: None stated. "Probably the vicinity of Princeton, New Jersey" (Stejneger and Barbour, 1943). Neotype locality: Crossley Preserve, western Berkeley Township, Ocean County, New Jersey, 4.76 mi (7.05 km) directly west of the Garden State Parkway bridge over Toms River at Toms River, New Jersey.

speari: Mexico (Chihuahua); Type Locality: 1.6 km N Hwy 2, 107°11'W, 31°33” N, 1250 m, on a side road intersecting Hwy. 2, 3.6 km E Microondas Duna, 18.6 km E San Martín, northern central Chihuahua, Mexico.

tedbrowni: USA (New Mexico [HR 32: 58]). Type Locality: A large dune, Waldrop Peak, 0.5 mi S Hy 380, Chavez Co., 6 mi W Caprock, Lea Co., New Mexico.

thayerii: USA (Texas), Mexico (Sonora); Type Locality: "Indianola [Calhoun County, Texas], on the Gulf of Mexico, San Antonio (Texas), El Paso del Norte, [see comment]". However, Smith (1938c) and Cochran (1961) give the type locality as Indianola

undulatus: South Carolina; Type Locality: "Les grands bois de la Caroline." Of neotype, 3.2 mi (5.14 km) N intersection of South Carolina route 41 and county road 100 at Wando (Cainhoy), in Francis Marion National Forest, Berkeley County, South Carolina. Wando, or Cainhoy, is 15.25 mi (24.6 km) NE Charleston, S. C.  
TypesNeotype: NCSM 83600 (was ChM = Charleston Museum = CR) 1981, collected by John Quinby 31 October 1953, designated by Bell (1996). Original types lost.
Holotype: USNM 15858, collected 23 September 1889, by C. Hart Merriam and Vernon O. Bailey [elongatus]
Holotype USNM 137833, collected by T. P. Maslin and H. A. Fehlman, 17 September 1949 [erythrocheilus]
Holotype: USNM 2874, collected by Dr. R. W. Jeffries, U. S. N. [floridanus]
Lectotype: BMNH 1946.8.30.10, one of the original three syntypes (Bell, 1996) [garmani]
Holotype: UCM 56881, collected 4 October 1993, by J. A. Lemos-Espinal [speari]
Holotype: MSB (also as MSWB, originally given as UNM) 33859, collected 19 June 1978, by A. and H. Sena [tedbrowni]
Syntypes: Three: USNM 2887, collected by J. H. Clark [thayerii]
Holotype: USNM 8613, collected August 1874, by W. G. Shedd [tristichus]
Holotype: ANSP 8347; New Jersey [Lacerta fasciata]
Syntypes: ANSP 8345-46, 8348; New Jersey; Neotype: ANSP 35082, collected 3 May 1993 by R. T. Zappalorti and E. L. Bell; see Bell (1996) [hyacinthinus]
Syntype: USNM 2887 [Sceloporus thayeri] 
CommentSubspecies: Sceloporus undulatus consobrinus and Sceloporus undulatus edbelli are treated as full species now. Leaché and Cole (2007) presented evidence for hybridization between S. cowlesi and S. tristichus. MILES et al. (2002) could not find convincing evidence for the validity of genetically distinct subspecies of C. undulatus. S. (u.) tristichus is the race of S. undulatus sympatric with occidentalis longipes in the Pine Valley Mountains of southwestern Utah (Cole, 1963; Smith and Chiszar, 1989).

Hybridization: S. u. garmani and erythrocheilus hybridize in Colorado (Smith et al. 1991).

Distribution: The information in this record needs to be updated. Based on the evidence presented by LEACHÉ (2009), Sceloporus undulatus is restricted to east of the Mississippi River and S. consobrinus to the west, a geographic finding consistent with a number of other systematic studies involving frogs and snakes. Not in Nuevo León fide Nevárez-de los Reyes et al. 2016. Leaché (2009) restricted the distribution of S. consobrinus to the United States and indicated the member of the undulatus group found within Nuevo León to be S. cowlesi, which is the name Lazcano et al. 2019 use for the Coahuilan populations (hence they do not list undulatus for Coahuila). Not in Sonora fide Lemos-Espinal et al. 2019, although the original type locality of thayerii said “as far westward as the province of Sonora”. Not in Durango fide Lemos-Espinal (2018).

Nomenclature: Lacerta fasciata Green, 1818 is a junior primary homonym of Lacerta fasciata Linnaeus (1758); see Smith (1947). 
EtymologyEtymology (edbelli): named after Edwin L. Bell, Professor Emeritus of Biology at Albright College, Reading, Pennsylvania, who worked for many years on S. occidentalis and the systematics of the UNDULATUS group.

Etymology (elongatus): The Latin elongatus refers to the elongate tail and legs, as described by Stejneger (1890).

Etymology (erythrocheilus): The Greek erythros, "red," and cheilos, "lip," refer to the rust-reddish coloration of the lips and adjacent scales in breeding males.

Etymology (garmani): The genitive singular noun honors Samuel Garman, Curator at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, who authored nearly 50 works in herpetology from 1874-1917. Garman sent the syntypes to Boulenger.

Etymology (hyacinthinus): The Greek singular noun is from hyakinthinus, "lily," and refers to the blue colors of the abdominal semeions.

Etymology (speari): The genitive singular patronym honors Norman E. Spear, Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the State University of New York at Binghamton, where he is Co-director of the Center for Developmental Psychology, and was a mentor for David Chiszar.

Etymology (tedbrowni): The Latin genitive singular honors Ted L. Brown, authority on the herpetology of New Mexico, and long editor of the New Mexico Herpetological Society Newsletter.

Etymology (thayerii): This name honors Col. Sylvanus Thayer, founder of the instructional regimen at West Point Military Academy in the middle of the 19th century.

Etymology (undulatus): The Latin undulatus, "wavy," refers to the undulant transverse dark cross-bars on the dorsum. 
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