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Senticolis triaspis (COPE, 1866)

IUCN Red List - Senticolis triaspis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesSenticolis triaspis intermedia (BOETTGER 1883)
Senticolis triaspis mutabilis (COPE 1885)
Senticolis triaspis triaspis (Cope 1866) 
Common NamesE: Green Rat Snake
intermedia: Northern Green Rat Snake
G: Grüne Rattennatter
S: Culebra Ratonera Verde 
SynonymColuber triaspis COPE 1866: 128
Coluber triaspis — BOULENGER 1894: 37
Coluber chlorosoma GÜNTHER 1894: 115 (fide DOWLING & FRIES 1986)
Coluber chlorosoma — BOULENGER 1894: 38
Coluber triaspis — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 152
Coluber triaspis — WERNER 1927: 244
Elaphe chlorosoma — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1917: 82
Elaphe triaspis — AMARAL 1929: 159
Elaphe triaspis — MARTIN 1958
Elaphe flavirufa CAMPBELL & HOWELL 1965: 135
Elaphe triaspis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 102
Elaphe triaspis — STEBBINS 1985: 186
Senticolis triaspis — DOWLING & FRIES 1987
Senticolis triaspis — LINER 1994
Elaphe triaspis — SCHULZ 1996: 317
Senticolis triaspis — JANSEN & KÖHLER 2003
Senticolis triaspis — MATA-SILVA et al. 2015
Senticolis triaspis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 665
Senticolis triaspis — CURLIS et al. 2020

Senticolis triaspis intermedia (BOETTGER 1883)
Pityophis intermedius BOETTGER 1883: 148
Elaphe triaspis intermedia — ÁLVAREZ DEL TORO & SMITH 1956: 13
Elaphe triaspis intermedia — ZWEIFEL 1959
Elaphe triaspis intermedia — DOWLING 1960
Elaphe triaspis intermedia — HARDY 1969: 161
Elaphe triaspis intermedia — STEBBINS 1985: 187
Elaphe triaspis intermedia — TANNER 1985: 630
Senticolis triaspis intermedia — CROTHER 2000
Senticolis triaspis intermedia — CRANSTON 2012
Senticolis triaspis intermedius

Senticolis triaspis mutabilis (COPE 1885)
Coluber mutabilis COPE 1885: 175
Natrix mutabilis — COPE 1887: 71
Scotophis mutabilis BOCOURT 1888
Coluberpolylepis WERNER 1896: 247
Elaphe mutabilis — TAYLOR 1939
Elaphe triaspis mutabilis — STUART 1948: 68
Elaphe triaspis mutabilis — MERTENS 1952: 64
Elaphe triaspis mutabilis — DOWLING 1960: 72
Elaphe triaspis mutabilis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 102
Senticolis triaspis mutabilis — DOWLING & FRIES 1987
Senticolis triaspis mutabilis — PRICE 1991

Senticolis triaspis triaspis (COPE 1866)
Elaphe triaspis triaspis — STUART 1948: 68
Elaphe triaspis triaspis — DOWLING 1960: 71
Elaphe triaspis triaspis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 102 
DistributionUSA (S Arizona, SW New Mexico),
SE Mexico (E Sonora, Nuevo León, W Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Morelos, Oaxaca, Aguascalientes, Tamaulipas, Quéretaro, Guanajuato, Durango),
Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica

triaspis: Mexico (Yucatan, Campeche, Quintana Roo), Belize; Type locality: Belize: Belize (Cope, 1866) (Smith & Taylor, 1950)

intermedia: USA (S Arizona, SW New Mexico), Mexico (Sonora, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacan, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Tabasco, Veracruz, Puebla, Hidalgo, S Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro); Type locality: Type locality, "Mexico," restrictedto Hacienda El Sabino, Michoacán, México by Dowling (1960).

mutabilis: Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica; Type locality: "Vera Paz," Guatemala, restricted to Alta Verapaz hlghlands of Guatemala by Stuart (1948).  
TypesHolotype: USNM 24903, a juvenile male, col­ lected by Dr. Parsons, date of collectlon unknown
Holotype: SMF 34575 (Senckenberg Museum), a juvenile male from me collection of Dr. Pagenstecher, date of collection unknown [intermedia]
Holotype: USNM 6745. an adult female, collected by Henry Hague, date of collection unknown [mutabilis] 
CommentSynonymy partly after VILLA et al. 1988 and PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Taxonomy: Keogh (1996) demonstrated the separation of Elaphe and Senticolis in a phylogenetic context. Molecular data revealed two deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages corresponding to northern and southern clades (candidate species) and eight well-supported clades within these two main groups. Traditional morphological analyses did not discriminate among mtDNA lineages (Roth-Monzón et al. 2021).

Type species: Coluber triaspis COPE 1866 is the type species of the genus Senticolis DOW.LING & FRIES 1986.

Color: uniform green or brown; juveniles are blotched.

Max. total length 1.2 m (in Costa Rica)

Similar species: has been confused with Pseudelaphe flavirufa.

Phylogenetics: see Dahn et al. 2018 for a phylogeny of Lampropeltini. 
EtymologyThe generic name is derived from the Latin words sentis, meaning "thorn or bramble" and colis, meaning "penis," in reference to the large basal spines on the hemipenis, which distinguishes it from its relatives. The specific name is derived from the Greek words treis, meaning "three" and aspis, meaning "shield," which according to the original description refers to the unusual three anterior temporals, directed upward and backward (LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013). 
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