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Simophis rhinostoma (SCHLEGEL, 1837)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Sao Paulo False Coral Snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Coral, Coral, Falsa-Coral, Falsa-Coral-Bicuda 
SynonymHeterodon rhinostoma SCHLEGEL 1837: 100
? Rhinostoma nasuum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 994
Rhinostoma schlegelii GÜNTHER 1858: 8
Simophis Rhinostoma — PETERS 1860: 521
Rhinaspis proboscideus JAN 1863: 215
Rhinaspis Rohdei BOETTGER 1885: 231
Simophis rohdii — BOULENGER 1894: 254
Rhinostoma nasuum — BOULENGER 1894: 347 (?)
Simophis rhinostoma — SCHNEE 1900: 462
Simophis rhinostoma rhinostoma — AMARAL 1929: 94
Simophis rhinostoma rhodei — AMARAL 1929: 182
Simophis rhinostoma — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 279
Simophis rohdei — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 279
Simophis rhinostoma — CACCIALI et al. 2009
Simophis rhinostomus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 674
Simophis rhinostoma — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná [HR 27: 216]), Paraguay

Type locality: interior of Brazil.

rohdei: Paraguay; Type locality: Paraguay  
TypesHolotype: ZISP 6658
Holotype: ZMB 2418 [Rhinaspis rohdei] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Head differentiated from the neck, tip of the snout flattened, rostral with a horizontal keel. Aposematic coloration consisting of triads of black and white rings separated by red rings mimetic with coral snakes of the Micrurus frontalis complex. Belly variable. Body of medium size, tail moderately long. A diastema dividing in half the row of maxillary teeth. The combination of red, black, and white rings, a diastema in the middle of the maxillary row of teeth, and a rostral with a horizontal keel distinguishes it from all other Colubridae [from CACCIALI et al. 2009].
CommentSynonymy: PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and CACCIALI et al. 2009 (who synonymized S. rohdei with S. rhinostoma).

Type species: Heterodon rhinostoma SCHLEGEL 1837 is the type species of the genus Simophis PETERS 1860.

Mimicry: this species mimics Micrurus spixii. 
  • Albuquerque, C. C., Puorto, G., & Travaglia-Cardoso, S. R. 2017. Simophis rhinostoma (Squamata: Colubridae): feeding habits and defensive behavior. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 33 (1): 123- 125 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1929. Contribuicao ao conhecimento dos ophidios do Brasil. IV. Lista remissiva dos ophidios do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan, Sao Paulo, 4: 71-125 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Argólo, A.J.S. 1998. Simophis rhinostoma. Brazil: Bahia. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 179 - get paper here
  • Argólo, António Jorge Suzart 1998. Geographic distribution. Simophis rhinostoma. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 179 - get paper here
  • Bertoluci, J., CANELAS, M.A.S., EISEMBERG, C.C., PALMUTI C.F.S. & MONTINGELLI G.G. 2009. Herpetofauna da Estação Ambiental de Peti, um fragmento de Mata Atlântica do estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 9 (1): 147-155 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1885. Liste von Reptilien und Batrachiern aus Paraguay. Zeitschr. Naturw. 58 (3): 213-248 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1894. List of reptiles and batachians collected by Dr. T. Bohls near Asuncion, Paraguay. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 13: 342-348 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier;, Norman J. Scott Jr, Rainer Guenther, Ricardo J. Sawaya, Francisco Brusquetti, and Frederick Bauer 2009. Taxonomic Status of the False Coral Snake Genus Simophis (Peters, 1860) (Serpentes: Colubridae: Colubrinae) from Paraguay and Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 43(4): 698-703 - get paper here
  • dos Santos-Jordao R; Fernandes-Bizerra A 1996. Reproducao, dimorfismo sexual e atividade de Simophis rhinostoma (Serpentes, Colubridae). REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE BIOLOGIA 56 (3): 507-512
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY, 144 p..
  • Günther, A. 1858. Catalogue of Colubrine snakes of the British Museum. London, I - XVI, 1 - 281
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1863. Enumerazione sistematica degli ofidi appartenenti al gruppo Coronellidae. Arch. Zool. Anat. Fisiol. 2 (2): 213-330 [1862] - get paper here
  • Marques, Otavio A.V. 2001. Tail displays of the false coral snake Simophis rhinostoma (Colubridae). Amphibia-Reptilia 22 (1): 127-129 - get paper here
  • Montingelli GG, Grazziotin FG, Battilana J, Murphy RW, Zhang Y‐P, Zaher H. 2018. Higher‐level phylogenetic affinities of the Neotropical genus Mastigodryas Amaral, 1934 (Serpentes: Colubridae), species‐group definition and description of a new genus for Mastigodryas bifossatus. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 57: 205– 239 [online 2018, in print 2019] - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1860. Drei neue Schlangen des k. zoologischen Museums aus America und Bemerkungen über die generelle Unterscheidung von anderen bereits bekannten Arten. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1860 (October): 517-521 - get paper here
  • Sawaya, Ricardo Jannini; Otavio Augusto Vuolo Marques <br />& Marcio Martins 2008. Composition and natural history of a Cerrado snake assemblage at Itirapina, São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil Biota Neotropica 8 (2): 127-149 - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Schnee 1900. Über eine Sammlung südbrasilianischer Reptilien und Amphibien, nebst Beschreibung einer neuen Schildkröte. Zool. Anz. 23: 461-464 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, Hussam; Fausto Erritto BarboI; Paola Sanchez Martínez; Cristiano Nogueira; Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues; Ricardo Jannini Sawaya 2011. Répteis do Estado de São Paulo: conhecimento atual e perspectivas. Biota Neotropica, 11 (1): 1–15. - get paper here
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