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Sinomicrurus sauteri (STEINDACHNER, 1913)

IUCN Red List - Sinomicrurus sauteri - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Oriental Coral Snake 
SynonymOligodon sauteri STEINDACHNER 1913: 219
Hemibungarus matsudai OSHIMA 1920: 21
Hemibungaus [sic] matsudai — TAKAHASHI 1930
Hemibungarus sauteri sauteri — MAKI 1931: 162
Hemibungarus sauteri — POPE 1935: 344
Calliophis japonicus sauteri — LOVERIDGE 1946: 153 (part.)
Calliophis sauteri — TAKARA 1962: 138 (part.)
Calliophis sauteri sauteri — KLEMMER 1963: 285
Calliophis japonicus sauteri — HARDING & WELCH 1980
Calliophis japonicus — GANS 1978: 18 (part.)
Calliophis (Hemibungarus) sauteri — LUE 1989: 39 (part.)
Hemibungarus japonicus sauteri — TORIBA in GOLAY et al. 1993: 141
Micrurus japonicus sauteri — WELCH 1994: 85 (part.)
Hemibungarus sauteri — OTA, ITO & LIN 1999
Sinomicrurus sauteri — SLOWINSKI, BOUNDY & LAWSON 2001
Calliophis sauteri — LILLYWHITE 2014: 28
Sinomicrurus sauteri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 676
Sinomicrurus sauteri — SMART et al. 2021

Sinomicrurus sauteri hatori (TAKAHASHI 1930)
Calliophis hatori TAKAHASHI 1930: 139
Hemibungarus sauteri hatorii — MAKI 1931: 164
Hemibungarus sauteri — OSHIMA 1944: 214 (part.)
Calliophis japonicus sauteri — LOVERIDGE 1946: 153
Hemibungarus sauteri hatori — WANG & WANG 1956: 65
Calliophis sauteri — TAKARA 1962: 138 (part.)
Calliophis sauteri hatori — KLEMMER 1963: 285
Calliophis japonicus — GANS 1978: 18 (part.)
Calliophis (Hemibungarus) sauteri — LUE 1989: 39
Hemibungarus japonicus sauteri — TORIBA in GOLAY et al. 1993: 141
Micrurus japonicus sauteri — WELCH 1994: 85 (part.)
Hemibungarus hatori — OTA, ITO & LIN 1999
Sinomicrurus hatori — SLOWINSKI, BOUNDY & LAWSON 2001
Sinomicrurus hatori — WALLACH et al. 2014: 676 
DistributionS/C Taiwan

Type locality: “Suishario, Formosa”

hatori: NE Taiwan; Type locality: “Karenk, Formosa” [=Taiwan].  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NMW 23456
Holotype: KUZ ? (Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ. no. a, K. Kodaira, Feb. 1927); not designated but “formerly in Taiwan Library” fide WALLACH et al. 2014: 676 [hatori] 
Diagnosis 
CommentVenomous!

Synonymy: mainly after OTA et al. 1999. The status of hatori has been controversial, with both considered valid species, subspecies (of sauteri) or synonyms, due to the lack of unambiguous diagnostic characters and a genetic distance smaller than what is typical between established sister species in this group (Smart et al. 2021).

Based on consistent differences in meristics and color pattern (i.e., S. hatori presents lateral white-margined black bars and has fewer ventrals, while S. sauteri is free of lateral bars and has a larger number of ventrals), especially in the context of purported parapatry, Ota et al. (1999) assumed the presence of reproductive isolation between the two taxa and decided to treat them as separate species. Smart et al. 2021 synonymized hatori with sauteri, but given the 2% genetic difference (in cytb), these populations may be in the process of speciation.

NCBI taxonomy ID: 1615764 [hatori] 
EtymologyS. s. hatori was named after S. Hatori, a Japanese herpetologist in Formosa (Taiwan) which was a Japanese possession until the early 20th century. 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Gans, C. 1978. Reptilian venoms: some evolutionary considerations. In: Gans,C. & Gans,K.A. (eds.), Biology of the Reptilia, vol. 8, Physiology B, pp. 1-42. Academic Press, London. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Golay,P, H.M. SMITH, D.G. BROADLEY, J. R. DIXON, C., MCCARTHY, J. C. RAGE, B. SCHÀTTI & M.TORIBA 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world. A checklist. [type catalogue] Aire-Genève, Azemiops S. A. Herpetological Data Center: i-xv + 1-478.
  • Klemmer,K. 1963. Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen. Elapidae, Hydropheidae [sic], Viperidae und Crotalidae. In: Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Behringwerk-Mitteilungen, spec. Suppl., Marburg.
  • Lillywhite, Harvey B. 2014. How Snakes Work: Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes. Oxford University Press, New York, 256 pp
  • Loveridge,A. 1946. Reptiles of the Pacific World. MacMillan Publ. Co., New York.
  • Lue,K.Y. 1989. Taiwan Snakes [in Chinese]. Taiwan Prov. Dept. Educ., Taipei.
  • Maki, M. 1931. Monograph of the Snakes of Japan. Dai-ichi Shobo, Tokyo. (1), 7, 240 pages (expanded edition 1933)
  • Maki, M. 1931. A new banded gecko, Eublepharis orientalis, Sp. Nov. from Riu Kyu. Annotaiones Zoologicae Japonenses, 13:9—11
  • Oshima, M. 1944. An annotated catalogue of the venomous snakes of the East Asian Mutually Prosperous region [In Japanese]. Hokuryu-kan, Tokyo.
  • Oshima, S. 1920. Notes on the venomous snakes from the islands of Formosa and Riu Kiu. Annu. Report. Inst. Sci. Govt. Formosa, (ser. 8) 2: 1-99 - get paper here
  • Ota, Hidetoshi, Akiko Ito and Jun-Tsong Lin. 1999. Systematic review of the Elapid snakes allied to Hemibungarus japonicus (Günther, 1868) in the East Asian Islands, with description of a new subspecies from the central Ryukyus. Journal of Herpetology 33 (4): 675-687 - get paper here
  • Pope, CLIFFORD H. 1935. The Reptiles of China. Turtes, Crocodilians, Snakes, Lizards. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., New York, Nat. Hist. Central Asia, 10: lii, 1-604 - get paper here
  • Slowinski, Joseph B.; Boundy, Jeff & Lawson,R. 2001. The phylogenetic relationships of Asian coral snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) based on morphological and molecular characters. Herpetologica 57 (2): 233-245 - get paper here
  • Steindachner, F. 1913. Über zwei neue Schlangenarten aus Formosa. Anz. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Ser. 50: 218-220
  • Takahashi,S. 1930. Synopsis of the terrestrial snakes of Japan [in Japanese]. Shunyo-do, Tokyo.
  • Takara,T. 1962. Studies on the terrestrial snakes in the Ryukyu Archipelago [In Japanese with English summary]. Sci. Bull. Agr. Home Econ. Div., Univ. Ryukyus (9): 1-202
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang,C. S. & Wang,Y. H. M. 1956. The reptile [sic] of Taiwan. Taiwan Mus., Taipei, Quarterly J. 9 (1): 1-86
  • Welch, K. R. G. 1994. Snakes of the World. A Checklist. I. Venomous snakes. KCM Books, Somerset, England.
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
 
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