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Sonora fasciata (COPE, 1892)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Variable Sand Snake, Banded Sand Snake
G: Gebänderte Sandschlange 
SynonymChilomeniscus stramineus fasciatus COPE 1892
Chilomeniscus fasciatus — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 139
Chilomeniscus fasciatus — MOCQUARD 1899: 317
Chilomeniscus stramineus esterensis HOARD 1939
Chilomeniscus cinctus — BANTA & LEVITON 1963
Chilomeniscus stramineus esterensis — BANTA & LEVITON 1963
Chilomeniscus stramineus fasciatus — BANTA & LEVITON 1963
Chilomeniscus stramineus — GRISMER et al. 2002: 28
Chilomeniscus fasciatus — HOLM 2008: 31
Sonora (Chilomeniscus) fasciata — COX et al. 2018: 972 
DistributionMexico (Baja California Sur: from the central Baja California Peninsula at least as far north as Las Tres Virgenes to southern Baja California Sur near El Triunfo)

esterensis: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: Estero Salina, Baja California Sur  
TypesHolotype: USNM 12630
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 30368; paratypes SDNHM = SDSNH 30364-30367, 30369, 30370 [esterensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Sonora fasciata can be distinguished from all other Sonora except for S. straminea and S. cincta by the presence of an elongated rostrum. Sonora fasciata is sympatric or narrowly allopatric with S. straminea and S. cincta. Sonora fasciata can be distinguished from S. straminea by the lack of apical maculations. There are no simple morphological measurements to distinguish S. fasciata and S. cincta, but Holm (2008) presented a formula of head squamation to distinguish these two taxa. Geographic range may in fact be the most reliable way to distinguish S. fasciata from S. cincta (see below) (Cox et al. 2018: 972).

Variation: This snake has both geographic colour pattern variation and colour polymorphism. In southern populations, both banded and unbanded specimens can be found in a single population. All specimens from Baja California Norte are banded (Cox et al. 2018: 972). 
CommentDistribution: not in Sonora fide Lemos-Espinal et al. 2019. 
  • Cope, E.D. 1892. A critical review of the characters and variations of the snakes of North America. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 14: 589-694 - get paper here
  • Cox, Christian L.; Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Iris A. Holmes, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Corey E. Roelke, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villela, Jimmy A. McGuire & Jonathan A. Campbell 2018. Synopsis and taxonomic revision of three genera in the snake tribe Sonorini. Journal of Natural History 52: 945-988 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. 2000. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Herpetological Circular 29: 1-82
  • GRISMER, L. L., H. WONG & P. GALINA-TESSARO 2002. Geographic variation and taxonomy of the Sand Snakes, Chilomeniscus (Squamata: Colubridae). Herpetologica 58 (1): 18-31 - get paper here
  • Hoard, R.S. 1939. A new subspecies of snake of the genus Chilomeniscus. Pomona Coll. Jour. Ent. and Zool. 31 (4): 45-46
  • Holm, PA. 2008. Phylogenetic biology of the burrowing snake tribe Sonorini (Colubridae). Tucson (AZ): University of Arizona
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Liner, E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetological Circular 23: 1-113
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
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