You are here » home advanced search search results Sonora straminea

Sonora straminea (COPE, 1860)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Sonora straminea?

Add your own observation of
Sonora straminea »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Namescinctus: E: Variable Sand Snake, Banded Sand Snake
cinctus: G: Gebänderte Sandschlange
S: Arenera de Modelo Variable 
SynonymChilomeniscus stramineus COPE 1860: 339
Chilomeniscus ephippicus COPE 1867
Carphophis straminea — GARMAN 1884: 99
Chilomeniscus punctatissimus VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921
Chilomeniscus punctatissimus CLIFF 1954
Chilomeniscus stramineus — STEBBINS 1985: 244
Chilomeniscus stramineus — LINER 1994
Chilomeniscus punctatissimus — LINER 1994
Chilomeniscus stramineus — MATTISON 2007: 85
Chilomeniscus stramineus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 159
Sonora straminea — COX et al. 2018
Sonora (Chilomeniscus) punctatissima — COX et al. 2018: 974
Chilomeniscus stramineus — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2019 
DistributionMexico (S Baja California Sur, Sinaloa)

Type locality: ‘Cape St. Lucas, Lower California [Baja California Sur]’.

punctatissimus: Mexico (Baja California Sur: Partida Island, Espiritu Santo Island); Type locality: “Isla Partida, Espiritu Santo Island, Gulf of California, Mexico’ [= Partida Island]  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 3405, USNM 4674, 6495
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 30368; paratypes SDNHM = SDSNH 30364-30367, 30369, 30370 [esterensis]
Holotype: CAS 49156 [punctatissimus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Sonora straminea can be distinguished from all other Sonora except for S. fasciata and S. cincta by the presence of an elongated rostrum. Sonora straminea is sympatric or narrowly allopatric only with S. fasciata, which shares the elongated rostrum. S. fasciata can be distinguished from S. straminea by the lack of apical maculations (Cox et al. 2018: 974).

Variation: Sonora straminea is one of only three species of Sonora that lack coloured bands or stripes, and is uniformly brown. Accordingly, this species lacks colour polymorphism and coral snake mimicry (Cox et al. 2018: 974).

Diagnosis (punctatissima): Sonora punctatissima can be distinguished from all other Sonora except for S. fasciata, S. cincta, S. stramineus and S. savagei by the presence of an elongated rostrum. Perhaps the best way to distinguish S. punctatissima from S. fasciata, S. cincta, S. stramineus and S. savagei is by geographic location; S. punctatissima is the only member of the genus Sonora on Partida and Espiritu Santo Islands. However, S. punctatissima can be distinguished from S. stramineus by lacking apical maculations on dorsal body scales (Holm 2008), although Grismer et al. (2002) noted the presence of blotches on scales of some morphs. Sonora punctatissima can be distinguished from S. savagei by having less than 127 ventral scales, compared to greater than 127 for S. savagei (Holm 2008). Sonora punctatissima can be distinguished from S. fasciata and S. cincta by either a gap between the internasals, possessing less than 35 bands and variation in ventral and subcaudal scale numbers summarized in Holm (2008) (Cox et al. 2018: 972).

Variation (punctatissima): This is a variable species, especially given the limited geographic range, with Grismer et al. (2002) describing four main pattern classes and individuals with intermediate pattern types. This species can be banded or unbanded, and the expression of bands in the banded individuals varies between a clearly demarcated black bands to grey or brown bands with indistinct margins (Cox et al. 2018: 972). 
CommentSynonymy: Chilomeniscus cinctus and C. punctatissimus have been synonymized with C. stramineus by GRISMER et al. (2002) but revalidated by Cox et al. 2018.

Type species: Chilomeniscus stramineus COPE 1860 is the type species of the genus Chilomeniscus COPE 1860.

All members of the genus Chilomeniscus have an elongated rostrum and are adapted to sandy, scrubby, and arid habitats in northern Mexico and south-western USA. 
References
  • Cliff, Frank S. 1954. Snakes of the islands in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 12 (5): 67-98 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Notes and descriptions of new and little-known species of American reptiles. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 339-345 [1860] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1867. On the REPTILIA and BATRACHIA of the Sonoran Province of the Nearctic Region. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18 [1866]: 300-314 - get paper here
  • Cox, Christian L.; Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Iris A. Holmes, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Corey E. Roelke, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villela, Jimmy A. McGuire & Jonathan A. Campbell 2018. Synopsis and taxonomic revision of three genera in the snake tribe Sonorini. Journal of Natural History 52: 945-988 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Funk, Richard S. 1967. A New Colubrid Snake of the Genus Chionactis from Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 12 (2): 180 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R., Charles R. Bursey and Jeanette Arreola. 2013. Chilomeniscus stramineus (variable sandsnake) endoparasites. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 688 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R., Clark R. Mahrdt and Kent R. Beaman. 2014. Chilomeniscus stramineus (variable sandsnake) reproduction. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 141 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. L., H. WONG & P. GALINA-TESSARO 2002. Geographic variation and taxonomy of the Sand Snakes, Chilomeniscus (Squamata: Colubridae). Herpetologica 58 (1): 18-31 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hoard, R.S. 1939. A new subspecies of snake of the genus Chilomeniscus. Pomona Coll. Jour. Ent. and Zool. 31 (4): 45-46
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Kunz, Kriton 2015. Schlangen, die Wirbellose fressen. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 14-20 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico with a conservation status summary and comparisons with neighboring states. ZooKeys 931: 85-114 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de los Reyes; Manuel, David Lazcano, Javier Banda-Leal and Ian Recchio 2014. Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 22: Herpetofauna of the Continental Portion of the Municipality of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 49(8):105-115 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Van Denburgh, J.; Slevin, J. R. 1921. Preliminary diagnoses of more new species of reptiles from islands in the gulf of California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 11 (17): 395-398 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

https://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species?genus=Sonora&species=straminea

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.



Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator