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Sphenomorphus crassus INGER, LIAN, LAKIM & YAMBUN, 2001

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymSphenomorphus crassa INGER, LIAN, LAKIM & YAMBUN 2001
Sphenomorphus crassa — LINKEM et al. 2010
Sphenomorphus crassus — DATTA-ROY et al. 2013 (by implication) 
DistributionMalaysia (Sabah, Borneo ?)

Type locality: Mendolong (670 m) (4° 54’ N, 115° 42’ E), Sipitang District, Sabah, Malaysia.  
TypesHolotype: FMNH 243839 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A large species of Sphenomorphus (holotype SVL 82mm)having relatively shortlimbs, four supraoculars, prefrontals widely separated, loreals 1+1, 32 scale rows, 13 lamellae under the fourth toe, and no lateral dark band (Inger et al. 2001: 184).

Comparisons. This species differs from other Bornean Sphenomorphus that have four supraoculars in several morphological features as shown in Table 2. In addition, the robust body, the light-spotted trunk, and the absence of a dark lateral stripe or band distinguishes this species from the others listed in Table 2. Three other Southeast Asian species of Sphenomorphus agree with S. crassa in having four supraoculars and separated prefrontals, S. cameronicus Smith, S. mindanensis Taylor, and S. victoria Brown and Alcala. All three of these species have dark lateral bands (Smith, 1924; Brown and Alcala, 1980), a pattern element absent in S. crassa . Sphenomorphus crassa is much larger than these species: S. cameronicus 6.5mm (Smith, 1924), S. mindanensis “large male” 55 mm(Brown and Alcala,1980), and S. victoria “mature female” 45 mm (Brown and Alcala, 1980). Sphenomorphus cameronicus has more scale rows (38) than S. crassa (Inger et al. 2001: 184). 
CommentHabitat: terrestrial.

Distribution: Not listed for Borneo by MALKMUS et al. (2002)

Abundance: only known from the type specimen (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “crassa” = stout. 
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 2008. A new species of insular skink (Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, West Malaysia with the first report of the herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar and an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Pulau Langkawi. Zootaxa 1691:53-66 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2007. A new species of small montane forest floor skink (genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) form Southern peninsular Malaysia. Herpetologica 63 (4): 544-551 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Ahmad, N. & Kin Onn, C. 2009. A new, diminutive, upland Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843 (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2312: 27–38 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. 2009. A New Insular Species of Skink of the Genus Sphenomorphus Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Scincidae) from Pulau Perhentian Besar, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 20(1): 51–69 - get paper here
  • Inger, R.F.; Lian, R.F.; Lakim, M. & Yambun, P. 2001. New species of the lizard genus Sphenomorphus (Lacertilia: Scincidae), with notes on ecological and geographic distribution of species in Sabah, Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 49 (2): 181-189 - get paper here
  • Linkem, C.W.; Diesmos, A.C.; Brown, R.M. 2010. A NEW SPECIES OF SCINCID LIZARD (GENUS SPHENOMORPHUS) FROM PALAWAN ISLAND, PHILIPPINES. Herpetologica 66 (1): 67–79 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • ROY, ANIRUDDHA DATTA; INDRANEIL DAS,, AARON M. BAUER, RONALD K. LYNGDOH TRON & PRAVEEN KARANTH 2013. Lizard Wears Shades. A Spectacled Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae), from the Sacred Forests of Mawphlang, Meghalaya, North-east India. Zootaxa 3701 (2): 257–276 - get paper here
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