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Sphenomorphus stellatus (BOULENGER, 1900)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Perak Forest Skink, Starry Forest Skink
G: Perak Waldskink 
SynonymLygosoma stellatum BOULENGER 1900: 192
Lygosoma stellatum — SMITH 1935: 284
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) stellatum — SMITH 1937: 220
Sphenomorphus stellatus — TAYLOR 1963: 1008
Sphenomorphus stellatus — COX et al. 1998: 117
Sphenomorphus stellatum — INGER et al. 2001
Sphenomorphus stellatus — MALKMUS et al. 2002
Sphenomorphus stellatum — GRISMER et al. 2007
Lygosoma stellatum — GRISMER et al. 2010
Sphenomorphus stellatus — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia

Type locality: Perak [Larut Hills]  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.3.26 (formerly, Larut, Perak, 4400', collected S.S. Flower; 1946.8.17.10 (formerly 1900.6.14.11), Larut, Perak, 3500', collected A.L. Butler; Selangor Museum (not found) Larut, Perak, 4000', collected A.L. Butler. Other specimens: FMNH 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Scales in 22-24 rows midway between axilla and groin; upper posterior temporals greatly enlarged; 4 supraoculars; enlarged middorsal scale rows; throat with or without barred pattern; dorsum light brown, with or without rows of spots; limbs moderate (from BACON 1967).

Comparison. Five other species of Bornean Sphenomorphus have four supraoculars. They are S. tenuiculus (Mocquard), S. shelfordi (Boulenger), S. buttikoferi (Lidth), S. hallieri (Lidth), and S. alfredi (Boulenger). None of these species has enlarged middorsal rows. Sphenomorphus shelfordi has 32 scale rows and 28 fourth toe lamellae; tenuiculus has 26 scale rows, 24 fourth toe lamellae and no nuchals; buttikoferi has 21-23 fourth toe and 15-16 fourth finger lamellae. Sphenomorphus hallieri has very small parietals which do not contact the supraoculars and two pairs of chin shields; alfredi has 7-12 fourth toe lamellae and 28-30 scale rows. Inger has recently re-examined the types of all five species and the counts given here are his. Four species from New Guinea have four supraoculars and nuchals. Sphenomorphus minutus (Meyer) has 22 scale rows, 15 fourth toe lamellae, prefrontals very small and widely separated, and a dorsal pattern of spots and streaks; Sphenomorphus nototaenius (Boulenger) has 24 scale rows with two enlarged vertebral rows and 18 fourth toe lamellae; however, the prefrontals do not meet, there is no greatly enlarged temporal, and there is a dorsal pattern of streaks and an immaculate venter. Sphenomorphus elegantulus (Peters and Doria) and S. nigrolineatus (Boulenger) have 26-28 rows and both have divided subdigital lamellae. (Bacon 1967) 
CommentDAREVSKY et al. (1983) provide a key to Vietnamese Sphenomorphus.

Synonymy: Smith 1935 synonymized Lygosoma annamiticum BOETTGER 1901 with L. stellatus, but the former has been revalidated by Grismer et al. 2019.

Distribution: populations from Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and Borneo have been assigned to other species by Grismer et al. 2019 who restricted S. stellatus to peninsular Malaysia. 
  • Bacon, J. P. 1967. Systematic status of three scincid lizards (genus Sphenomorphus) from Borneo. Fieldiana: Zoology 51: 63-76. - get paper here
  • Bobrov V.V., Semenov D.V. 2008. Lizards of Vietnam [in Russian]. Moscow, 236 pp.
  • Boettger, O. 1901. Aufzählung einer Liste von Reptilien und Batrachiern aus Annam. Ber. Senck. Ges., Senckenbergiana 1901: 45-53
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1900. Description of new batrachians and reptiles from Larut Hills, Perak. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 6: 186-193. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Grismer, L. Lee 2006. Two new species of skinks (Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) from the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 9 (2): 151-162.
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 2008. A new species of insular skink (Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, West Malaysia with the first report of the herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar and an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Pulau Langkawi. Zootaxa 1691: 53-66 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn, Jesse L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., and A. Norhayati 2010. A CHECKLIST OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE BANJARAN BINTANG, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 147-160 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S. H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, NIKOLAY A. POYARKOV, NEANG THY, NIKOLAI L. ORLOV,<br />PANUPONG THAMMACHOTI & HUN SEIHA 2019. Integrative taxonomy of the Asian skinks Sphenomorphus stellatus (Boulenger, 1900) and S. praesignis (Boulenger, 1900) with the resurrection of S. annamiticus (Boettger, 1901) and the description of a new species from Cambodia. Zootaxa 4683 (3): 381–411 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; ROMAN A. NAZAROV, VLADIMIR V. BOBROV & NIKOLAY A. POYARKOV 2020. A new species of Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam with a discussion of biogeography and character state evolution in the S. stellatus group. Zootaxa 4801 (3): 461–487 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Ahmad, N. & Kin Onn, C. 2009. A new, diminutive, upland Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843 (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2312: 27–38 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. 2009. A New Insular Species of Skink of the Genus Sphenomorphus Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Scincidae) from Pulau Perhentian Besar, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 20(1): 51–69 - get paper here
  • Inger, R.F.; Lian, R.F.; Lakim, M. & Yambun, P. 2001. New species of the lizard genus Sphenomorphus (Lacertilia: Scincidae), with notes on ecological and geographic distribution of species in Sabah, Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool. 49 (2): 181-189 - get paper here
  • Jestrzemski, Daniel; Stefan Schütz, Truong Quang Nguyen, Thomas Ziegler 2013. A survey of amphibians and reptiles in Chu Mom Ray National Park, Vietnam, with implications for herpetofaunal conservation. Asian Journal of Conservation Biology, 2 (2): 88–110 - get paper here
  • Linkem, C.W.; Diesmos, A.C.; Brown, R.M. 2010. A NEW SPECIES OF SCINCID LIZARD (GENUS SPHENOMORPHUS) FROM PALAWAN ISLAND, PHILIPPINES. Herpetologica 66 (1): 67–79 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nguyen, Truong Quang; Andreas Schmitz, Tao Thien Nguyen, Nikolai L. Orlov, Wolfgang Böhme, and Thomas Ziegler 2011. Review of the Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) in Vietnam, with Description of a New Species from Northern Vietnam and Southern China and the First Record of Sphenomorphus mimicus Taylor, 1962 from Vietnam. Journal of Herpetology 45 (2): 145-154.
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Stuart, B.L. & Emmett, D.A. 2006. A Collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from the Cardamom Mountains, Southwestern Cambodia. Fieldiana Zool. N.S. (109): 1-27 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
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