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Sphenomorphus tonkinensis NGUYEN, SCHMITZ, NGUYEN, ORLOV, BÖHME & ZIEGLER, 2011

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Tonkin Forest Skink
G: Tonkin-Bodenskink 
SynonymSphenomorphus tonkinensis NGUYEN, SCHMITZ, NGUYEN, ORLOV, BÖHME & ZIEGLER 2011
Sphenomorphus rufocaudatus — SCHMITZ & ZIEGLER 2003 (not DAREVSKY & NGUYEN 1983)
Sphenomorphus tonkinensis — BÖHME 2014: 156 

Type locality: within Cat Ba National Park, Cat Ba Island, Hai Phong, (20°47.610’N, 106°59.462’E), elevation 100 m.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: IEBR A.0730, adult male, collected on 19 May 2007 by T. Q. Nguyen, R. Stenke, and T. Ziegler. Paratypes.—ZFMK 61734, adult male, collected in April 1995 by P. Heimes from Wuzhishan, Hainan Island, China, 700 m a.s.l. (previously reported as Sphenomorphus rufocaudatus by Schmitz and Ziegler, 2003); ZFMK 82864, subadult, collected by G. Vogel from Tam Dao Mt., Vinh Phuc Province (unknown collection date); five specimens from Ba Mun Island (21u04.3679N, 107u35.6339E) and one specimen (VNMN 949) from Cai Lim Island (21u06.5009N, 107u34.7009E) within Bai Tu Long National Park, Quang Ninh Province, in the Gulf of Tonkin: VNMN 205, adult male, collected on 20 September 2008 by T. T. Nguyen and S. Ryabov; IEBR A.0912 and MHNG 2713.33, adult males, collected on 16 May 2009 by T. Ziegler and T. Q. Nguyen; VNMN 934, 935, 949, adult females, collected by T. T. Nguyen from 21–23 September 2009. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Size small (SVL 35.8–48.8 mm); prefrontals in contact with each other mesially; supraoculars four; a pair of nuchals present or absent; lower eyelid moveable, scaly; supralabials seven; primary temporals two; external ear present, without lobules, tympanum slightly sunk; midbody scales in 32–34 rows; dorsal scales smooth, paravertebral scales 65–72, not widened; limbs well developed, pentadactyl; scales on dorsal surface of base of digit IV in three rows; 15–19 smooth lamellae under fourth toe; free margins of upper and lower eyelids edged in white; dorsum and tail base bronze brown with a discontinuous dark vertebral stripe; upper lateral zone with black stripe, interrupted by small light spots from behind the neck. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet tonkinensis refers to the former name of North Vietnam, Tonkin, and also refers to the Gulf of Tonkin (Vinh Bac Bo), which houses the type locality. 
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Gawor, A., C. T. Pham, T. Q. Nguyen, T. T. Nguyen, A. Schmitz & T. Ziegler 2016. The herpetofauna of the Bai Tu Long National Park, northeastern Vietnam. Salamandra 52 (1): 23-41 - get paper here
  • Hecht, Vera L.; Cuong T. Pham, Tao T. Nguyen, Truong Q. Nguyen, Michael Bonkowski & Thomas Ziegler 2013. First report on the herpetofauna of Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, northeastern Vietnam. Biodiversity Journal 4 (4): 507–552
  • Nguyen, Truong Quang; Andreas Schmitz, Tao Thien Nguyen, Nikolai L. Orlov, Wolfgang Böhme, and Thomas Ziegler 2011. Review of the Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) in Vietnam, with Description of a New Species from Northern Vietnam and Southern China and the First Record of Sphenomorphus mimicus Taylor, 1962 from Vietnam. Journal of Herpetology 45 (2): 145-154.
  • Ziegler, T., RAUHAUS, A., TRAN, T.D., PHAM, C.T., VAN SCHINGEN, M., DANG, P.H., LE, M.D. & NGUYEN, T.Q. 2015. Die Amphibien- und Reptilienfauna der Me-Linh-Biodiversitätsstation in Nordvietnam. Sauria 37 (4): 11-44 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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