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Spondylurus anegadae HEDGES & CONN, 2012

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae (Mabuyini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Anegada Skink 
SynonymSpondylurus anegadae HEDGES & CONN 2012: 139
Mabuya sloanii — GRANT, 1937:520 (part)
Mabuya mabouya — BARBOUR, 1937:147 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS, 1975: 141 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — MACLEAN et al., 1977: 33 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — HEATWOLE et al., 1981: 34 (part)
Mabuya mabouya — MACLEAN, 1982: 36 (part)
Mabuya sloanei — LAZELL, 1983: 104 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1988: 151 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1991: 457 (part)
Mabuya bistriata — POWELL et al., 1996: 82 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — MAYER & LAZELL, 2000: 883 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — PERRY & GERBER, 2006: 244 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — HENDERSON & POWELL, 2009: 293 (part) 
DistributionBritish Virgin Islands (Anegada)

Type locality: Anegada  
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 80583, an adult female, collected 6 April 1936 on Anegada (no specific locality), British Virgin Islands, by Chapman Grant. Paratypes (n = 37). Anegada, British Virgin Islands. MCZ R-42381 and UMMZ 239502–528 (paratopotypes), same collection data as holotype; CM 17357–58, Harry A. Beatty (no additional collection information available); KU 242057, Albert Schwartz, vicinity of The Settlement, 18 August 1964; KU 242058–63, Albert Schwartz, The Settlement, 28 March 1968. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Spondylurus anegadae sp. nov. is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, 67.8 mm; (2) maximum SVL in females, 70.4 mm; (3) snout width, 2.13–3.34% SVL; (4) head length, 15.4–18.6% SVL; (5) head width, 10.7–13.3% SVL; (6) ear length, 0.96–2.10% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 8.34–10.7% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two (97%), three (3%); (9) supraoculars, four; (10) supraciliaries, four (95%), five (5%); (11) frontoparietals, two; (12) supralabial below the eye, five (76%), six (24%); (13) nuchal rows, one (5%), two (87%), three (8%); (14) dorsals, 58–66; (15) ventrals, 59–70; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 118–133; (17) midbody scale rows, 28–33; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 10–14; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 13–17; (20) finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae, 24–31; (21) supranasal contact, Y; (22) prefrontal contact, Y (3%), N (97%); (23) supraocular-1/frontal contact, Y (45%), N (55%); (24) parietal contact, Y; (25) pale middorsal stripe, Y; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, Y; (27) dark lateral stripe, Y; (28) pale lateral stripe, N; and (29) palms and soles, pale (Tables 3–5).
Within the Genus Spondylurus, S. anegadae sp. nov. is separated from all other species except S. culebrae sp. nov., S. lineolatus, S. monae sp. nov., S. semitaeniatus, and S. sloanii by having a higher dark dorsolateral stripe width/middorsal stripe width ratio (1.35–3.79 versus 0.115–1.27 in those other species). It differs from S. caicosae sp. nov., S. culebrae sp. nov., and S. sloanii by having essentially no dorsal pattern posterior to the dark dorsolateral stripes (versus dark dorsal spots posterior to the dark dorsolateral stripes in those other species). It is distinguished from S. fulgidus, S. monitae sp. nov., S. spilonotus, and S. turksae sp. nov. by having supranasal contact (versus no contact in those other species). From S. magnacruzae sp. nov. and S. spilonotus, it is separated by having a lower number of midbody scale rows (28–33 versus 34 in those other species). Compared with S. culebrae sp. nov. (maximum SVL, 98 mm), S. anegadae sp. nov. (maximum SVL, 70.4 mm) is much smaller (e.g., Fig. 2) and also differs by a plot of interparietal width versus SVL (Fig. 57). From S. lineolatus, it differs by having two dark dorsolateral stripes and two dark lateral stripes (versus 10 dark stripes in S. lineolatus) and by having a larger head (head length 15.4–18.6% SVL versus 12.9–14.4% in S. lineolatus). Spondylurus anegadae sp. nov. differs from S. semitaeniatus by having a shorter, wider nostril (Fig. 58). It differs from S. monitae sp. nov. by having straighter dark dorsolateral stripes (versus dark dorsolateral stripes that bow inward on the parietal scales in S. monitae sp. nov.). In pattern (Fig. 55A), S. anegadae sp. nov. differs most distinctively from other species in having a pale face (top and side of snout) and dark dorsolateral and lateral stripes that extend only a short distance past the axila and then end abruptly, the dorsolateral stripes being distinctly darker than lateral stripes.
Besides those non-overlapping differences, there are frequency differences that distinguish Spondylurus anegadae sp. nov. from other species. It differs from S. fulgidus by having fewer supraciliaries (four in 95% of specimens versus five in S. fulgidus). It is separated from S. haitiae sp. nov. by having a larger ear (ear length 1.26– 2.10% SVL in 88% of specimens versus 1.19% in S. haitiae sp. nov.). It is distinguished from S. macleani by having fewer finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae (24–29 in 86% of specimens versus 30–31 in 80% of specimens belonging to S. macleani). It is separated from S. martinae sp. nov. by having fewer ventral scales (59–67 in 94% of specimens versus 68–71 in S. martinae sp. nov.). It differs from S. monae sp. nov. by having a higher dark dorsolateral stripe width/middorsal stripe width ratio (1.82–3.79 in 85% of specimens versus 0.985–1.73 in 89% of specimens belonging to S. monae sp. nov.). It is distinguished from S. nitidus by having a shorter toe-IV (toe-IV length 8.34–10.0% SVL in 81% of specimens versus 10.1–12.7% SVL in 93% of specimens belonging to S. nitidus). From S. powelli sp. nov., it is separated by having supranasal contact (versus no supranasal contact in 81% of specimens belonging to S. powelli sp. nov.). It is separated from S. sloanii by lacking prefrontal contact: no contact in 97% of specimens of S. anegadae sp. nov. versus contact (or near contact; < 0.3% SVL separation of prefrontals), in 74% of specimens belonging to S. sloanii). Approximately one-half of S. anegadae sp. nov. have 30 or fewer midbody scale rows, but other species of the genus Spondylurus inhabiting the Virgin Islands (S. macleani, S. magnacruzae sp. nov., S. semitaeniatus, S. sloanii, and S. spilonotus) all have 31 or more scale rows. Except for S. lineolatus and S. powelli sp. nov., Spondylurus anegadae sp. nov. is a smaller species than all others within the Genus Spondylurus (maximum adult SVL 70.4 mm versus 77.6–98.8 mm in other species) [HEDGES & CONN 2012]. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe species name (anegadae) is a feminine genitive singular noun referring to the distribution of the species on the island of Anegada. 
  • Heatwole, H., Levins, R., & Byer, M.D. 1981. Biogeography of the Puerto Rican Bank. Atoll Res. Bull. no. 251: 62 pp. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244
  • Lazell, J. D., Jr. 1983. Biogeography of the herpetofauna of the British Virgin Islands, with description of a new anole (Sauria: Iguanidae), p. 99-1 17. In A. G. J. Rhodin and K. Miyata (eds.), Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology. Essays in Honor of Ernest E. W Museum of Comparative Zoology, pp. 99-117 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Perry, G. & Gerber, G.P. 2006. Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in the British Virgin Islands: Status and patterns. Applied Herpetology 3 (3): 237-256 - get paper here
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