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Staurotypus triporcatus (WIEGMANN, 1828)

IUCN Red List - Staurotypus triporcatus - Least Concern, LR

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Higher TaxaKinosternidae, Staurotypinae, Kinosternoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Mexican Giant Musk Turtle
S: Guao 
SynonymTerrapene triporcata WIEGMANN 1828
Staurotypus triporcatus — WAGLER 1830
Staurotypus Triporcatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 356
Staurotypus triporcatus — GRAY 1864: 451
Claudius pictus COPE 1872: 26
Staurotypus triporcatus — GÜNTHER 1885: 11
Staurotypus triporcatus — BOULENGER 1889
Staurotypus triporcatus — LINER 1994
Staurotypus triporcatus — KÖHLER 2000: 28
Staurotypus triporcatus — RHODIN et al. 2010
Staurotypus triporcatus — MCCRANIE 2018 
DistributionMexico (Gulf and Caribbean drainages of C/S Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Tabasco, Chiapas, Campeche, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo), Belize, NE Guatemala, W Honduras

Type locality: "Rio Alvarado," Veracruz, Mexico.  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 127. 
CommentType species: Terrapene triporcata WIEGMANN 1828 is the type species of the genus Staurotypus WAGLER 1830: 137.

Habitat: freshwater (lakes, quiet rivers)

Distribution: not in Yucatan state (Mexico), fide Gonzalez-Sanchez et al. 2017. 
EtymologyThe name Staurotypus is derived from the Greek words stauros (cross) and typos (figure, impression, model, shape). The name alludes to the slightly cruciform and relatively small plastron (Wagler, 1830).

The name triporcatus is formed from the Latin tri (thrice), porca (ridge between two furrows), and -atus (provided with, having the nature of, pertaining to). The name alludes to 3 high ridges on the carapace of this species (McCranie 2018: 501). 
  • Aguilar-López JL, Luría-Manzano R, Pineda E, Canseco-Márquez L 2021. Selva Zoque, Mexico: an important Mesoamerican tropical region for reptile species diversity and conservation. ZooKeys 1054: 127-153 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1889. Catalogue of the chelonians, rhynchocephalians, and crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum, London, 311 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Buskirk, James R. 1997. New locality records for freshwater turtles from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico [Kinosternon creaseri; Staurotypus triporcatus; Rhinoclemmys areolata]. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 2 (3): 415-416
  • Calderon, R.; Cedeño-Vázquez, J.R. & Pozo, C. 2003. New distributional records for amphibians and reptiles from Campeche, Mexico. Herpetological Review 34 (3): 269-272 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. 1998. Amphibians and reptiles of northern Guatemala, the Yucatán, and Belize. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, xiii + 380 pp. - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Casteñeda, Franklin E., James R. McCranie and Luis A. Herrera. 2013. Staurotypus triporcatus (giant musk turtle, guao do tres filas) predation. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 309 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1872. Synopsis of the species of the Chelydrinae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia (ser. 3) 24: 22-29 - get paper here
  • Duellman, W. E. 1963. Amphibians and reptiles of the rainforest of Southern El Peten, Guatemala. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 15: 205-49. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Gray, J. E. 1864. Description of a new species of Staurotypus (S. salvinii) from Guatemala. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 14: 451-452 - get paper here
  • Günther, A. C. L. G. 1885. Reptilia and Batrachia. Biologia Centrali-Américana. Taylor, & Francis, London, 326 pp. [published in parts from 1885-1902; reprint by the SSAR 1987] - get paper here
  • Gutsche, A. 2016. Arend Friedrich August Wiegmann (1802–1841) und sein Beitrag zur Herpetologie der Neotropis am Zoologischen Museum Berlin. Mertensiella 23: 156–169
  • Iverson J B 1985. Staurotypus Wagler. Mexican musk turtles. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 362: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B. 1983. Staurotypus triporcatus. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (328): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B. 2016. Staurotypus triporcatus (Northern Giant Musk Turtle) Longevity. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 73 - get paper here
  • Johnson, Jerry D.; Vicente Mata-Silva, Elí García Padilla, and Larry David Wilson 2015. The Herpetofauna of Chiapas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (3): 272–329. - get paper here
  • Kawagoshi, Taiki; Yoshinobu Uno, Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda 2014. The Staurotypus Turtles and Aves Share the Same Origin of Sex Chromosomes but Evolved Different Types of Heterogametic Sex Determination. PLoS One 9 (8): e105315. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105315 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
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  • Legler, J.M.& Vogt, R.C. 2013. The Turtles of Mexico: Land and Freshwater Forms. University of California Press, 416 pp. - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • McCOY, C. J., CENSKY, E. J., & VAN DE VENDER, R. R. 1986. Distribution records for amphibians and reptiles in Belize, Central America. Herpetological Review 17:28-29. - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • Platt, Steven G. 1993. The natural history of the Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus) in Belize. Vivarium 5 (2): 26-27;35
  • Sachsse, W. 2011. Vorschläge für die Sommerhaltung von Wasserschildkröten im Freiland. Elaphe 19 (2): 44-45
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  • Schilde, M. 2003. Family Kinosternidae. Reptilia (GB) (26): 16-21 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Stuart, L. C. 1948. The amphibians and reptiles of Alta Verapaz Guatamala. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 69: 1-109 - get paper here
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  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
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  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J.; van Dijk, P.P.; Iverson, J.B. & Shaffer, H.B. [turtle taxonomy working group] 2010. Turtles of the World, 2010 Update: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010 - get paper here
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  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp. [1830-1832] - get paper here
  • Wiegmann,A.F.A. 1828. Beyträge zur Amphibienkunde. Isis von Oken 21 (4): 364-383 - get paper here
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