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Stegonotus batjanensis (GÜNTHER, 1865)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Bacan Island groundsnake, Batjan Frog-eating Snake 
SynonymLeptophis batjanensis BLEEKER 1857:473 (nomen nudum)
Coluber (Lielaphis) batjanensis GÜNTHER 1865: 93
Stegonotus batjanensis — BOULENGER 1893: 368
Stegonotus batjanensis — BRONGERSMA 1948: 309
Stegonotus batjanensis — HOW AND KITCHENER 1997
Stegonotus batjanensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 685
Stegonotus batjanensis — KAISER et al. 2018: 23 
DistributionIndonesia (Ambon, Halmahera,Morotai, Batjan = Bacan, Batanta, Salawati, N Maluku islands)

Type locality: Batjan [= Bacan Island, North Maluku Province, Indonesia].  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.11.36 (formerly, an adult male. 
DiagnosisComparison: For a comprehensive comparison of species, especially to the new species Stegonotus ayamaru, see that entry and Kaiser et al. 2019. 
CommentPhylogenetics: Stegonotus batjanensis nests within Lycodon in the tree of Zaher et al. 2019 
EtymologyThe species was named for Batjan (now Bacan) Island, where the holotype was collected. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Brongersma, L. D. 1948. Frogs and snakes from the island of Morotai (Moluccas).
  • Günther, A. 1865. Fourth account of new Species of Snakes in the Collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 15: 89-98. - get paper here
  • How, R. A.; Kitchner, D. J. 1997. Biogeography of Indonesian snakes. Journal of Biogeography 24 (725-735):
  • Kaiser, Christine M.; Hinrich Kaiser & Mark O'Shea 2018. The taxonomic history of Indo-Papuan groundsnakes, genus Stegonotus Duméril et al., 1854 (Colubridae), with some taxonomic revisions and the designation of a neotype for S. parvus (Meyer, 1874). Zootaxa 4512 (1): 001–073 - get paper here
  • KAISER, CHRISTINE M.; JACK LAPIN, MARK O’SHEA & HINRICH KAISER 2020. Carefully examining Bornean Stegonotus (Serpentes, Colubridae): the montane groundsnake population in Sabah is a new and distinct species. Zootaxa 4894 (1): 053–068 - get paper here
  • KAISER, CHRISTINE M.; MARK O’SHEA, HINRICH KAISER 2019. A new species of Indo-Papuan groundsnake, genus Stegonotus Duméril et al., 1854 (Serpentes, Colubridae), from the Bird’s Head Peninsula of West Papua, Indonesia, with comments on differentiating morphological characters. Zootaxa 4590 (2): 201-230 - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2013. The snakes of the Moluccas (Maluku), Indonesia. Edition Chimaira, 417 pp. - get paper here
  • McKay, Lindley and Olga Milenkaya. 2016. Stegonotus batjanensis (Northern Moluccan Ground Snake) Diet. Herpetological Review 47 (2): 316-317 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Setiadi, M. I. & A. Hamidy, 2006. Jenis-Jenis Herpetofauna di Pulau Halmahera. Kerjasama antara Pusat Studi Biodiversitas dan Konservasi Universitas Indonesia dan Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Puslit Biologi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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