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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
DistributionPeru (Amazonas)

Type locality: Amazonas Department, Bongará Province, Cuispes District, Cuispes village; from farms adjacent to Cuispes village, 5°55.49’S, 77°56.94’W; 1850 m a.s.l.  
TypesHolotype: CORBIDI 18658, adult male; 7 Mar. 2017; G. Chávez leg. Paratypes: CORBIDI 18659–61; 2 adult males, 1 female juvenile; collected with the holotype; Amazonas Department, Bongará Province, Shipasbamba District, Canta Gallo; 5°55.43’S, 77°59.03’W; 1720 m a.s.l.; 27 Aug. 2017; A. García-Bravo leg.; CORBIDI 18748, 18749, 18750; CORBIDI 22035, 1 female, adult; Amazonas Department, Bongará Province, Cuispes District, Cuispes village; 5°55.79’S, 77°56.66’W; 1880 m a.s.l.; 25 Sept. 2019; L.A. García-Ayachi leg. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Stenocercus flagracanthus sp. nov. differs from all other species of Stenocercus, except from S. arndti Venegas, Echevarria & Alvarez, 2014, S. bolivarensis Castro & Ayala, 1982, S. carrioni Parker, 1934, S. chlorostictus Cadle, 1991, S. crassicaudatus Tschudi, 1845, S. empetrus Fritts, 1972, S. eunetopsis Cadle, 1991, S. torquatus Boulenger, 1885, and S. simonsii Boulenger, 1899 by having granular scales on the posterior surface of the thighs, a relatively short tail, caudals spinose and two caudal whorls per autotomic segment. Among the aforementioned species, S. flagracanthus sp. nov., possesses caudal scales with the most strongly projected mucrons. This difference is evident comparing S. flagracanthus sp. nov. with S. carrioni, S. crassicaudatus, S. empetrus, S. eunetopsis, and S. simonsii, and to a lesser degree comparing it with S. arndti, S. chlorostictus and S. torquatus. Moreover, the size of mucrons along the second half of the tail in S. flagracanthus sp. nov., is clearly alternating, with large mucrons followed by small mucrons per each caudal whorl. In the other species, this character is indistinct or only possible to observe at the distal extreme, like in S. carrioni. With the goal of facilitating the distinction between S. flagracanthus sp. nov. and the aforementioned species, herein, we provide more differences.
Stenocercus flagracanthus sp. nov. differs from S. carrioni, S. chlorostictus and S. euneptopsis by having dorsal scales of the neck granular and not keeled (keeled and imbricate in the three former species). Stenocercus flagracanthus sp. nov. can be easily distinguished from S. crassicaudatus and S. empetrus by having a distinct black antehumeral collar (faint or absent in the remaining species). Stenocercus crassicaudatus, S. euneptopsis and S. simonsii have longer tails than S. flagracanthus sp. nov. with 57 to 62%, 64 to 66%, and 57 to 63% versus 50 to 54% of total length, respectively. Stenocercus flagracanthus sp. nov. also differs from S. crassicaudatus by having fewer scales around midbody with 96 to 104 (xˉ = 99.63) in the new species, and 97 to 121 (xˉ = 108.87) in S. crassicaudatus. Stenocercus flagracanthus sp. nov. differs from S. bolivarensis by having granular lateral body scales versus strongly keeled and imbricate lateral body scales (Torres-Carvajal 2007b).
Males of S. arndti are easily distinguished from S. flagracanthus sp. nov. by having a bold black transverse band at midbody that extends ventrolaterally (absent in S. flagracanthus sp. nov.). Stenocercus torquatus can be distinguished from S. flagracanthus sp. nov. by having black nuchal bands, absent in S. flagracanthus sp. nov. Moreover, Stenocercus torquatus has more scales around midbody than S. flagracanthus sp. nov. (120 to 137, xˉ = 116.96 versus96to104,xˉ=99.63,respectively).Stenocercus empetrus can be easily separated from S. flagracanthus sp. nov. by the ventral coloration, venter yellowish-orange with black reticulations in the former and whitish gray without reticulations in S. flagracanthus sp. nov. Stenocercus roseiventris D’Orbigny in Duméril & Bibron, 1837 and S. marmoratus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 share with S. flagracanthus sp. nov. the presence of caudal scales with strongly projected mucrons but differ by having the scales on the dorsal surface of neck and posterior surface of thighs imbricate and keeled. (Venegas et al. 2020) 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin words “flagrum” (= whip, derived from “flagellum”) and the Greek “acanthos” (= spine or thorn). It refers to the spiny tail of this new species of lizard that resembles the ancient Roman torture tool, the “flagrum”, a whip-like instrument with accessories for inflicting damage. The specific epithet “flagracanthus” is a noun in apposition. 
  • Venegas PJ, García-Ayachi LA, Chávez-Arribasplata JC, Chávez G, Wong I, García-Bravo A 2020. Four new species of Stenocercus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata, Iguania) from the Department of Amazonas in northeastern Peru. Evolutionary Systematics 4(2): 79-108 - get paper here
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