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Sympholis lippiens COPE, 1862

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Mexican Short-tail Snake
S: Culebra Cola Corta Mexicana 
SynonymSympholis lippiens COPE 1862
Cheilorhina villarsii JAN 1862: 48
Cheilorhina villarsii — GARMAN 1884: 85
Geophis lippiens — GARMAN 1884: 102
Sympholis lippiens — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Sympholis lippiens — ZWEIFEL 1959
Sympholis lippiens rectilimbus HENSLEY 1966
Sympholis lippiens rectilimbus — TANNER 1985: 643
Sympholis lippiens — LINER 1994
Sympholis lippiens — LINER 2007
Sympholis lippiens — WALLACH et al. 2014: 692 
DistributionW Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Sonora)

Type locality: Guadalajara, Jalisco

rectilimbus: Mexico (Chihuahua, Sonora);  
TypesSyntypes: USNM 31345, 31346 
CommentType species: Sympholis lippiens COPE 1861 is the type species of the genus Sympholis COPE 1861.

Synonymy: partly after WALLACH et al. 2014: 692.

Diet: scorpions, centipedes and spiders (Jackson et al. 2019). 
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. On Elapomorphus, Sympholis, and Coniophanes. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13 [1861]: 524 - get paper here
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Frost, D.R. 1978. Geographic distribution: Sympholis lippiens, Mexico, Jalisco. Herpetological Review 9 (2): 62 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Hardy, L.M., & McDiarmid, R.W. 1969. The amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 18 (3): 39-252. - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Humphrey, Frances L.;Shannon, Frederick A. 1958. A state record and range extension for the snake Sympholis lippiens (Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetologica 13: 257-260 - get paper here
  • Jackson TNW, Jouanne H and Vidal N 2019. Snake Venom in Context: Neglected Clades and Concepts. Front. Ecol. Evol. 7:332 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico with a conservation status summary and comparisons with neighboring states. ZooKeys 931: 85-114 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Liner, E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetological Circular 23: 1-113
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. & Taylor, Edward H. 1945. An annotated checklist and key to the snakes of Mexico. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (187): iv + 1-239 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1985. Snakes of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45 (4): 615-676 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A, Paulino Ponce-Campos, Jesús Loc-Barragán, Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson, Elí García-Padilla and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Nayarit, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 376-448 - get paper here
  • Zweifel, Richard G. 1959. The provenance of reptiles and amphibians collected in Western Mexico by J. J. Major. American Museum Novitates (1949): 1-9 - get paper here
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