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Tarentola rudis BOULENGER, 1906

IUCN Red List - Tarentola rudis - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common Names 
SynonymTarentola delalandii var. rudis BOULENGER 1906: 200
Tarentola borneensis GRAY 1845
Tarentola delalandii — ANGEL 1937
Tarentola delalandii var. rudis — BOULENGER 1947
Tarentola delalandii delalandii (DUMERIL & BIBRON) — LOVERIDGE
Tarentola delalandii delalandii — DEKEYSER & VILLIERS 1955
Tarentola delalandii rudis — MERTENS 1955: 6
Tarentola rudis rudis — SCHLEICH 1984
Tarentola borneensis rudis — JOGER 1984: 101
Tarentola borneensis — JOGER 1984: 99
Tarentola gigas rudis — KLUGE 1993
Tarentola rudis rudis — JOGER 1993
Tarentola gigas rudis — KLUGE 1993 ?
Tarentola (Makariogecko) rudis — CARRANZA et al. 2000
Tarentola rudis — VASCONCELOS et al. 2012: 352
Tarentola rudis — RÖSLER 2018: 24 
DistributionSouth of Santiago, Sta. Maria (Cape Verde Islands)

Type locality: restricted to Praia - Santiago (Cape Verde Islands).  
TypesLectotype: MSNG: 28149.1 (designated by Joger, 1984); paralectotype: MCNG 28149/2. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (rudis): Medium to large-sized gecko [maximum SVL around 88 mm (Schleich, 1987), 68.7 mm on average; Appendix 2]; eye/ear opening ratio averages 1.92; ear–eye/eye–snout distance ratio averages 0.78. Nine to 11 supralabials (generally ten or 11) and seven to 11 infralabials (Schleich, 1984); nine to 13 enlarged lamellae under the 4th finger; 130–165 midbody scales (Joger, 1984b); conical to apical prominent dorsal tubercles with a narrow central keel (Fig. 5D2), especially on the tail, with 16–22 longitudinal lines and 12–18 transverse rows (Schleich, 1984, 1987 and Appendix S2); several enlarged tubercles between the eye and the ear opening. Grey brownish-greenish dorsal pattern with a series of four to five (usually four) light middorsal patches, each preceded by a W-shaped dark mark, usually connected by a light middorsal line, which is situated in a tubercle-free space (Figs 6D2, 7D2); white ventral parts; clearly marked big dark spots on the labials, creating an alternating light and dark pattern; eye iris light grey with a broad horizontal dark area. Note that the insular specimens from Ilhéu Santa Maria are less robust and have the middorsal line generally more pronounced.

It differs from T. bocagei, T. fogoensis, T. darwini, T. substituta, T. raziana, T. caboverdiana, and T. nicolauensis by presenting enlarged tubercles between the eye and ear opening and prominent dorsal tubercles with a narrow central keel and by presenting a W-shaped dorsal pattern limiting a white spot, instead of symmetrical or asymmetrical butterfly- or X-shaped dark dorsal crossbands or marbled patterns (Figs 6, 7). It differs from T. gigas by its smaller SVL (always below 100 mm), its smaller mass, and eye iris coloration. It differs from T. boavistensis by generally presenting greyer dorsal coloration with frequently more contrasted pattern and eye iris not orangey, and from other taxa from clade D by the coloration and pattern of the labials (darker and/or more regularly creating an alternated dark and light pattern than Tarentola from Fogo, Brava, Rombos, and Maio). It also differs from Tarentola from clade D from Brava, Rombos, and Maio by four to five well-defined W-shaped dorsal bands (Fig. 6); from Tarentola from Fogo, Brava, and Rombos of the same clade by a whiter ventral coloration, and from Tarentola from Maio by a higher number of scales and lamellae under the fifth toe [22–24, rarely 21 versus 19–21, rarely 22 (Joger, 1984b)]. 
CommentMORPHOBANK M45996–M46036

Subspecies: Joger (1984) treated "rudis" and "gigas" as semi-species within one species which, because of the priority rule, had to be named "borneensis" Gray, 1845. Schleich (1984, 1987) did not accept it and considered "rudis" and "gigas" as separated species. The name "borneensis" is no longer valid by decision of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in 1990 (opinion 1585; Carranza et al. 2000), as applied for by Schleich in 1988 (Joger 1993) [fide Filipe Sousa (pers. comm.)]. Tarentola rudis protogigas JOGER 1984 has been elevated to full species with Tarentola rudis hartogi JOGER 1993 as subspecies. Tarentola rudis boavistensis JOGER 1993 and Tarentola rudis maioensis SCHLEICH 1984 have been elevated to full species status by VASCONCELOS et al. 2012. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1906. Report on the reptiles collected by the late L. Fea in West Africa. Ann. Mus. civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (3) 2: 196-216 - get paper here
  • Carranza, S., Arnold, E. Nicholas; Mateo, J. A. and L. F. López-Jurado 2000. Long-distance colonization and radiation in gekkonid lizards, Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proc. R. Soc. London B 267: 637-649 - get paper here
  • Jesus, J.; Brehm, A. & Harris, D.J. 2002. Relationships of Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the Cape Verde Islands estimated from DNA sequence data. Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (1): 47-54 - get paper here
  • Joger U 1993. On two collections of reptiles and amphibians from the Cape Verde Islands, with descriptions of three new taxa. COURIER FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT SENCKENBERG 159: 437-444
  • Joger, U. 1984. Die Radiation der Gattung Tarentola in Makaronesien. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 71: 91-111
  • Mertens, R. 1955. Die Eidechsen der Kapverden. Soc. Sci. fenn. Comment. biol. 15: 1-16
  • Rösler, H. 2018. Haftbar -- Die einzigartige Welt der Geckos. Begleitheft zur Ausstellung im Naturkundemuseum Erfurt Mai-Aug 2018, 96 pp.
  • Schleich H H 1984. Die Geckos der Gattung Tarentola der Kapverden (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). COURIER FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT SENCKENBERG 68: 95-106
  • Schleich, H.H. 1987. Herpetofauna caboverdiana. Spixiana Suppl. (12) 75 pp. - get paper here
  • Vasconcelos, R., A. Perera, P. Geniez, D. J. Harris, and S. Carranza. 2012. An integrative taxonomic revision of the Tarentola geckos (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) of the Cape Verde Islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 164 (2): 328-360 - get paper here
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