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Tarentola substituta JOGER, 1984

IUCN Red List - Tarentola substituta - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Cape Verde Wall Gecko 
SynonymTarentola caboverdiana substituta JOGER 1984: 103
Tarentola delalandii — BOULENGER 1885: 199 (part.)
Tarentola delalandii var. rudis — LOVERIDGE 1947: 334 (part.)
Tarentola delalandei delalandei — DEKEYSER & VILLIERS 1951: 1152 (part.)
Tarentola caboverdianus caboverdianus — SCHLEICH 1984 (part.)
Tarentola caboverdiana substituta — SCHLEICH 1987: 46
Tarentola caboverdiana substituta — JOGER 1993
Tarentola (Makariogecko) caboverdiana substituta — CARRANZA et al. 2000
Tarentola caboverdiana substituta — KÖHLER et al. 2007
Tarentola substituta — VASCONCELOS et al. 2012: 347
Tarentola substituta — MORAVEC 2023 
DistributionS. Vicente (Cape Verde Islands), Azores; probably introduced to Santo Antao Island

Type locality: S. Vicente (Cape Verde Islands).  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: ZMH R01687; 3 paratypes ZMH R01686, ZMH R01688-1689. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (substituta): Medium-sized gecko (maximum SVL 65.5 mm, 51.6 mm on average), eye/ear opening ratio between 1.5 and 2 (Schleich, 1987); ear–eye/eye–snout distance ratio ≤ 1 (Schleich, 1987). Eight to 11 supralabials and seven to nine infralabials (Schleich, 1987); eight to nine enlarged lamellae under the 4th finger; 146–167 midbody scales (Joger, 1984b); oval to round conical and saddle-like more-or-less keeled dorsal tubercles (Fig. 5B1) with 14–20 longitudinal lines (Schleich, 1987); no tubercles between the eye and the ear opening. Dorsal pattern with symmetrical butterfly- or X-shaped dark dorsal cross bands often lined with whitish tubercles posteriorly; vertebral stripe absent or reduced to a narrow light line (Figs 6B1, 7B1); cream to yellowish ventral parts; generally white labials; blackish eye iris with golden upperparts.
Smaller scales than the other Tarentola species from clades B and C, and greater number of scales around midbody (Joger, 1984b). It differs from Tarentola from clade B from Desertas (clade B2 in Fig. 2) by its larger SVL and higher number of dorsal bands; four to five from the neck to the caudal region some- times surrounded by white tubercles (Joger, 1984b); and from Tarentola from Santo Antão (clade B3 in Fig. 2) by the head length being longer than the anterior limbs and by presenting a higher number of interorbital scales, usually 21 or more, and from specimens from clade C by a lower number of scales and lamellae under the fifth toe (Joger, 1984b); MORPHOBANK M44991–M44994, M55646–M55698 [VASCONCELOS et al. 2012]. 
CommentSynonymy after Filipe Sousa (pers. comm.) and  VASCONCELOS et al. 2012. 
  • Carranza, S., Arnold, E. Nicholas; Mateo, J. A. and L. F. López-Jurado 2000. Long-distance colonization and radiation in gekkonid lizards, Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae), revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences. Proc. R. Soc. London B 267: 637-649 - get paper here
  • Carretero, M.A., Lopes, E.P. & Vasconcelos, R. 2016. An ecophysiological background for biogeographic patterns of two island lizards? Sci Nat (2016) 103: 97. doi:10.1007/s00114-016-1422-8 - get paper here
  • Jesus, J.; Brehm, A. & Harris, D.J. 2002. Relationships of Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the Cape Verde Islands estimated from DNA sequence data. Amphibia-Reptilia 23 (1): 47-54 - get paper here
  • Joger U 1993. On two collections of reptiles and amphibians from the Cape Verde Islands, with descriptions of three new taxa. COURIER FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT SENCKENBERG 159: 437-444
  • Joger, U. 1984. Die Radiation der Gattung Tarentola in Makaronesien. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 71: 91-111
  • Joger, U. 1984. Morphologische und biochemisch-immunologische Untersuchungen zur Systematik und Evolution der Gattung Tarentola (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Anatomie und Ontogenie der Tiere, 112:137-256
  • Köhler, G.; Hertz, A.; Sunyer, J.; Seipp, R. & Monteiro, A. 2007. Herpetologische Forschungen auf den Kapverden unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Kapverdischen Riesenskinks, Macroscincus coctei. Elaphe 15 (4): 62-66
  • Moravec, J. 2023. Herpetological notes from the islands of São Vicente and Santo Antão, Cabo Verde. Zoologia Caboverdiana 11, 1, 03–09 - get paper here
  • Rato, Catarina, Roberto Resendes, Regina Tristao da Cuhna and D. James Harris. 2015. First record of Tarentola substituta Joger, 1984, and genetic identification of Tarentola mauritanica (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Azores. Herpetozoa 27 (3/4): 182-187 [2014] - get paper here
  • Schleich H H 1984. Die Geckos der Gattung Tarentola der Kapverden (Reptilia: Sauria: Gekkonidae). COURIER FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT SENCKENBERG 68: 95-106
  • Schleich, H.H. 1987. Herpetofauna caboverdiana. Spixiana Suppl. (12) 75 pp. - get paper here
  • Vasconcelos, R., A. Perera, P. Geniez, D. J. Harris, and S. Carranza. 2012. An integrative taxonomic revision of the Tarentola geckos (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae) of the Cape Verde Islands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 164 (2): 328-360 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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