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Thamnodynastes longicauda FRANCO, FERREIRA, MARQUES & SAZIMA, 2003

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Jararaca-Falsa 
SynonymThamnodynastes longicaudus FRANCO, FERREIRA, MARQUES & SAZIMA 2003
Thamnodynastes longicaudus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 718
Thamnodynastes longicaudus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Thamnodynastes longicauda — TREVINE et al. 2021 
DistributionSE Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro)

Type locality: BRAZIL, São Paulo, São Lourenço da Serra, 23°51’S–46°56’W, 690 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 59545, (male, 370 mm SVL, 204 mm TAL), 22 Dez. 1998, M. D. Galante. Paratypes: IB 18676, (male, 289 mm SVL, 147 mm TAL), BRAZIL, São Paulo, Salesópolis, Estação Biológica de Boracéia (23°38’S–45°52’W, 900 m a.s.l.), 09 Jan. 1960, Medeiros; IB 20694, (male, 300 mm SVL, 155 mm TAL), BRAZIL, São Paulo, Itapecerica da Serra (23°43’S–46°50’W, 906 m a.s.l.), 04 Aug. 1961, C. Zanuzzi; IB 26561, (male, 144 mm SVL, 75 mm TAL), BRAZIL, São Paulo, Juquitiba (23°55’S– 47°04’W, 685 m a.s.l.), 13 Sept. 1966, X. Langlada; IB 31890, (male, 334 mm SVL, 174 mm TAL), BRAZIL, São Paulo, Areias (22°34’S–44°41’W, 520 m a.s.l.), 11 Jan. 1971; collector unknown; IB 33702, (male, 351 mm SVL, 195 mm TAL), BRAZIL, São Paulo, Juquitiba (23°55’S–47°04’W, 685 m a.s.l.), 15 Jan. 1973, P. R. Lang; IB 33706, (male, 325 mm SVL, 182 mm TAL), BRAZIL, São Paulo, Guapiara (24°11’S–48°31’W, 750 m a.s.l.), 24 Jan. 1973, collector unknown; IB 41045, (male, 411 mm SVL, 219 mm TAL), BRA- ZIL, Rio de Janeiro, Teresópolis (22°24’S–42°57’W, 872 m), 29 Oct. 1976, R. W. Waltemath. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: slender body; very long tail (about 50% of body length); 19 scale rows in the mid-body; high subcaudal scale count (101–109); and a series of 5–6 black blotches in the fore-body, shown during defensive displays. The new species is known from moderate elevations of the Serra do Mar range and its features indicate that it is one of the most arboreal species within the genus (from FRANCO et al. 2003).

Character table: Franco et al. 2017, Trevine et al. 2021: 245 (Table 2) 
CommentHabitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyThe specific name is an adjective derived from the Latin words longus and caudus, alluding to the very long tail of the new species.

The species name needs to be longicauda, according to ICZN Article 34.2.1 which states that the gender of a noun in apposition must not be changed to agree in gender with the generic name, The Latin noun for tail is cauda and of female gender. For further explanations and examples see Böhme & Denzer (2019). 
  • Franco, F.L.; Ferreira, T.G.; Marques, O.A.V. & Sazima, I. 2003. A new species of hood-displaying Thamnodynastes (Serpentes: Colubridae) from the Atlantic forest in southeast Brazil. Zootaxa 334: 1–7 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • TREVINE, VIVIAN C.; JOSÉ RANCÉS CAICEDO-PORTILLA, MARINUS HOOGMOED, ROBERT A. THOMAS, FRANCISCO L. FRANCO, GIOVANNA G. MONTINGELLI, MARIELA OSORNO-MUÑOZ, HUSSAM ZAHER 2021. A new species of Thamnodynastes Wagler, 1830 from western Amazonia, with notes on morphology for members of the Thamnodynastes pallidus group (Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Tachymenini). Zootaxa 4952 (2): 235–256 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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