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Thamnophis brachystoma (COPE, 1892)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis brachystoma - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Shorthead Garter Snake
G: Kurzkopf-Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymEutaenia brachystoma COPE 1892: 964
Eutaenia brachystoma — CLARK 1903
Thamnophis brachystoma — SMITH 1945
Thamnophis brachystoma — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 168
Thamnophis brachystoma — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis brachystoma — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 101
Thamnophis brachystoma — WALLACH et al. 2014: 720 
DistributionUSA (S Michigan, NW Pennsylvania, W New York)

Type locality: Pennsylvania, Venango County, Allegheny river nr. Franklin.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 10751 
  • Asplund, K.K. 1963. Ecological factors in the distribution of Thamnophis brachystoma (Cope) Herpetologica 19 (2): 128-132. - get paper here
  • Bothner, R.C. 1963. A hibernaculum of the short-headed gartersnake, Thamnophis brachystoma (Cope) Copeia 1963 (3): 572-573. - get paper here
  • Bothner, Richard C. 1976. Thamnophis brachystoma. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (190): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Clark, H.L. 1903. The short-mouthed snake (Eutaenia brachystoma COPE) in Southern Michigan. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 16: 83-88 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1892. A new species of Eutaenia from western Pennsylvania. American Naturalist 26: 964-965 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Ernst, C.H. & Gotte, S.W. 1986. Notes on the reproduction of the shorthead garter snake, Thamnophis brachystoma. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 22 (1): 6-9 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Gray, B.S. 2003. A note regarding defensive behavior in the short-headed gartersnake (Thamnophis brachystoma) Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 39(1): 8-9. - get paper here
  • Gray, Brian S. 2008. Observations on the Diet of the Shorthead Garter Snake, Thamnophis brachystoma. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 25: 24-28 - get paper here
  • Gray, Brian S. 2011. Seasonal Activity and Natural History Observations of Five Snake Species from the Central Lowland Province of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 38: 13 - get paper here
  • Gray, Brian S. 2011. Longevity and Growth in the Shorthead Garter Snake, Thamnophis brachystoma. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 38: 9 - get paper here
  • GRAY, BRIAN S. & MARK LETHABY 2017. Preliminary morphometrics, growth, and natural history observations of the short-headed garter snake, Thamnophis brachystoma at two urban sites in Erie County, Pennsylvania, USA. Herpetological Bulletin (141): - get paper here
  • Grübner, D. 2006. Die seltener beobachteten Strumpfbandnattern. Draco 6 (25): 66-76 - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Lethaby, M. and B. S. Gray 2016. Thamnophis brachystoma (Short-headed Gartersnake) movements and site fidelity. Herpetological Review 47(3): 485. - get paper here
  • Lethaby, Mark and Brian S. Gray. 2015. Thamnophis brachystoma (short-headed gartersnake) population size, density, and biomass. Herpetological Review 46 (4): 652 - get paper here
  • Lethaby, Mark. 2011. Thamnophis brachystoma (short-headed gartersnake) coloration. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 445-446 - get paper here
  • Mibroda, Julie E.; Darin J. McNeil, Jr., Joseph E. Duchamp, Josiah H. Townsend, and Jeffery L. Larkin 2017. Roadside Habitat Use by the Endemic Short-headed Gartersnake (Thamnophis brachystoma) in Northwestern Pennsylvania, USA. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 12 (3) - get paper here
  • Novotny, Raymond J., Mark Lethaby and Brian S. Gray. 2011. Geographic Distribution: Thamnophis brachystoma (Short-headed gartersnake). Herpetological Review 42 (3): 396 - get paper here
  • Pisani, G.R. 1967. Notes on the Courtship and mating Behavior of Thamnophis brachystoma (Cope) Herpetologica 23 (2): 112-115. - get paper here
  • Price, Andrew H. 1978. New locality records and range extensions for Thamnophis brachystoma (reptilia: Serpentes) in Pennsylvania. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 14 (4): 260-263 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R.Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2009. Neogene diversification and taxonomic stability in the snake tribe Lampropeltini (Serpentes: Colubridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52 (2): 524-529 - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Smith, A.G. 1945. The status of Thamnophis butleri COPE, and a redescription of Thamnophis brachystoma (COPE). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 58: 147-154 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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