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Thermophis baileyi (WALL, 1907)

IUCN Red List - Thermophis baileyi - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Xizang Hot-spring Keel-back
Chinese: Xizang Wenquan She 
SynonymTropidonotus baileyi WALL 1907: 617
Thermophis baileyi — MALNATE 1953
Thermophis baileyi — GUO & CHEN 2000
Thermophis baileyi — SUN et al. 2011
Thermophis baileyi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 729 
DistributionChina (Tibet = Xizang, Lhasa region), 3000-4000 m elevation or higher.

Type locality: “Thibet” [= Tibet]  
TypesType: BNHS = BNHM (Collection of the Bombay Natural History Society) 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS (genus). A colubrid snake genus distinguished by the following combination of characters: hypapophyses of the vertebrae present only in the anterior part of the body; hemipenis forked, plicate basally, spinous medially, calculate distally; sulcus spermaticus deeply forked; maxillary teeth 21-24, subequal or progressively larger posteriorly in the series, last two narrowly separated from those anterior; rostral recurved dorsally; anterior nasal plates expanded, projecting dorsally along the rostral edge, almost excluding the rostral from contact with the internasals; dorsal scales well keeled; anal plate divided. (Malnate 1953: 92) 
CommentPlate 39H in ZHAO & ADLER 1993.

Type species: Tropidonotus baileyi WALL 1907 is the type species of the genus Thermophis MALNATE 1953.

Distribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). 
Etymologynamed after Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Markham Bailey (1882-1967), a British army officer, spy, explorer, and butterfly collector. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil;Chaturvedi, Naresh 1998. Catalogue of the herpetological types in the collection of the Bombay Natural History Society. Hamadryad 23 (2): 150-156 - get paper here
  • Guo, P., and Y. Y., Chen. 2000. The rare and endemic snakes in China—Thermophis baileyi. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 19 (2):79~80 - get paper here
  • GUO, Peng; SHAO YING LIU, SONG HUANG, MIAO HE, ZHI YU SUN, JIN CHAO FENG & ER MI ZHAO 2009. Morphological variation in Thermophis Malnate (Serpentes: Colubridae), with an expanded description of T. zhaoermii. Zootaxa 1973: 51-60 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, Sylvia 2012. Population genetic structure and geographic differentiation in the hot spring snake Thermophis baileyi (Serpentes, Colubridae): Indications for glacial refuges in southern-central Tibet. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63 (2): 396-406 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, Sylvia; Frank Tillack, Georg Miehe 2015. Genetic differentiation among species of the genus Thermophis Malnate (Serpentes, Colubridae) and comments on T. shangrila. Zootaxa 4028: 102–120 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, Sylvia; Peter Fritzsche, Torstein Solhøy, Tsering Dorge, and Georg Miehe 2012. Evidence of Sex-biased Dispersal in Thermophis baileyi Inferred from Microsatellite Markers. Herpetologica 68 (4): 514-522. - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Liu SY, Zhao EM 2004. Discovery of Thermophis baileyi (Wall ,1907), a snake endemic to Xizang AR, from Litang County, Sichuan, China[ J]. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 23 (3): 234 - 235. - get paper here
  • Malnate, Edmond V. 1953. The taxonomic status of the Tibetan colubrid snake Natrix baileyi. Copeia 1953 (2): 92-96. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Song Huang, Shao-ying Liu, Peng Guo, Ya-ping Zhang, Er-mi Zhao 2009. What are the closest relatives of the hot-spring snakes (Colubridae, Thermophis), the relict species endemic to the Tibetan Plateau? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 51 (3): 438-446 - get paper here
  • SUN, Xiaoyu; Shaoying LIU and Song HUANG 2011. Tibetan Plateau Relict Snakes of the Genus Thermophis and Their Relationship to New World Relict Snakes. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (3): 161-168 - get paper here
  • Wall,F. 1907. Some new Asian snakes. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 612-618 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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