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Toenayar novemcarinata (ANDERSON, 1871)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Anderson's Mabuya, Nine-keeled Sun Skink
G: Neunkiel-Mabuye 
SynonymEuprepes novemcarinatus ANDERSON 1871: 12
Mabuya novemcarinata — BOULENGER 1887: 179
Mabuia doriae BOULENGER 1887 (fide SMITH 1935)
Mabuya novemcarinata — SMITH 1935: 261
Mabuya novemcarinata — TAYLOR 1963: 941
Mabuya novemcarinata — ZUG et al. 1998
Eutropis novemcarinata — MAUSFELD et al. 2002
Eutropis novemcarinata — GRISMER 2011: 579
Toenayar novemcarinata — KARIN et al. 2016 
DistributionSunda Region, India, Thailand, Burma (= Myanmar), Peninsular Malaysia

Type locality: “Mandalay, Upper Burmah” [= Burma]  
TypesHolotype: ZSI (fide Smith 1935), where it cannot be located at present (Das et al. 1998)
Holotype: BMNH 1882.10.3.7 [doriae] 
DiagnosisDescription (genus): A medium-sized (SVL to 90mm), robust skink with welldeveloped limbs, 32–34 scale rows around the midbody, 7–11 keels on the dorsal scales, adpressed hindlimbs reaching the wrist of the forelimb, 17–21 subdigital lamellae under toe IV, supranasals in contact or slight separation, prefrontals separated or in slight contact, parietals almost always separated by interparietal, frontal in contact with first and second supraocular, one pair of nuchals present, equal in width to two or three adjacent rows of cycloid scales; ear opening with two anterior lobules; 26 presacral vertebrae; palatal rami separated (i.e. open palate); males possess three enlarged, opaque-white heel scales, whereas females do not (Horton, 1973; Smith, 1935; Taylor, 1963; this study). Color of dorsum light brown, with irregular black spotting; color of thick lateral stripes dark black-brown beginning at the nostril and diminishing posterior to the base of the tail; color of venter cream.

Comparisons: The following collective characters distinguish Toenayar from all closely related taxa in the Mabuya group. Toenayar differs from Mabuya in the number of presacral vertebrae (26 vs. >27, respectively) and from most species by having keeled (versus smooth) dorsal scales (Greer et al., 2000; Mausfeld et al., 2002); from Eumecia in having pentadactyl limbs (versus limb and digital reduction) and Eumecia and Eutropis by having an undivided transparent disk in the lower eyelid and 7–11 keels on the dorsal scales (versus lower eyelid scaly or having greater or less than three keels on dorsal scales); from Dasia by the separation of the palatine bones (open palate) and further by the possession of an undivided transparent disk in the lower eyelid; from Heremites and Trachylepis by the presence of enlarged, differentiated heel scales in males (and enlarged, undifferentiated heel scales in females), and additionally from the vast majority of Trachylepis by possessing 7–11 keels on the dorsal scales; and from Chioninia and Vietnascincus by having 32–34 midbody scale rows and no postnasal scale. Toenayar shares with it’s closest relative, Dasia, male possession of enlarged, differentiated heel scales, however in Toenayar there are three enlarged scales and in Dasia there are two (Greer, 1970). 
CommentDistribution: Not listed for India by DAS 1996 but by DAS 1997, 2003. Occurrence in India is questionable as there are no known/published records. This species has not been seen on Penang island since the report of Flower 1896.

Type species: Euprepes novemcarinatus ANDERSON 1871: 12 is the type species of the genus Toenayar KARIN et al. 2016. 
EtymologyThe generic name comes from the mythology of Myanmar, in which the Toenayar (Pronunciation: ‘‘Toh-Ay-Nah-Yar”), from the Burmese language, is a mythical Dragon or serpent with four legs. The Burmese language has no grammatical gender, but we treat the scientific name, Toenayar, as feminine. 
  • Anderson, J. 1871. A list of the reptilian accession to the Indian Museum, Calcutta, from 1865 to 1870, with a description of some new species. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 40, part 11(1): 12-39. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Das, I. 1997. Checklist of the reptiles of India with English common names. Hamadryad 22 (1): 32-45
  • Das, Indraneil 2003. Growth of Knowledge on the Reptiles of India, with an Introduction to Systematics, Taxonomy and Nomenclature. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 100 (2-3): 446-502 - get paper here
  • Das,I. 1996. Biogeography of the Reptiles of South Asia. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Karin, B.R., Metallinou, M., Weinell, J.L., Jackman, T.R., Bauer, A.M. 2016. Resolving the higher-order phylogenetic relationships of the circumtropical Mabuya group (Squamata: Scincidae): An out-of-Asia diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 102: 220–232 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
  • Zug, George R.;Win, Htun;Thin, Thin;Min, Than Zaw;Lhon, Win Zaw;Kyaw, Kyaw 1998. Herpetofauna of the Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary, north-central Myanmar with preliminary observations of their Natural History. Hamadryad 23 (2): 111-120
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