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Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER, 1838)

IUCN Red List - Tomistoma schlegelii - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaCrocodylidae (Crocodylia, crocodiles)
Common NamesE: False gharial, Sunda Gavial
G: Falscher (oder Schlegels) Gavial, Sundagavial 
SynonymCrocodilus (Gavialis) schlegelii MÜLLER 1838
Gavialosuchus schlegeli — BRÜHL 1886
Gavialis schlegelii — BRÜHL 1886
Tomistoma schlegeli — DE ROOIJ 1915: 335
Tomistoma schlegelii — KING & BURKE 1989
Tomistoma schlegelii — COX et al. 1998: 122
Tomistoma schlegelii — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 233
Tomistoma schlegelii — STUEBING et al. 2015 
DistributionIndonesia (Sumatra, Borneo, Kalimantan, Java, Sulawesi),
Malaysia (Malay Peninsula), S Thailand, Vietnam

Type locality: Karau river and Lake Lamoeda on river Doeson, Southern Borneo.  
TypesSyntypes: RMNH 39581(cat.ost.a): complete skeleton + skull, (probably river Karau,) Borneo; RMNH 35444 (cat.ost.b): skull, probably river Karau, Borneo; RMNH 35445 (cat.ost.c): skull, Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E; RMNH 7934: stuffed specimen, Borneo; RMNH 7935: stuffed small specimen; RMNH 35449: egg (dry),Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E; RMNH 3198: egg (alcohol), Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E; RMNH 3200: embryo with large yolk sac, Lake Lamoeda, river Doeson, Borneo, 1S 115E. 
CommentOften separated in its own subfamily, Tomistominae, or more recently assigned to the Gavialidae (WILLIS et al. 2007).

Distribution: Not in Myanmar (= Burma) according to STUEBING et al. (2006).

Type species: Crocodilus (Gavialis) schlegelii MÜLLER 1838 is the type species of the genus Tomistoma MÜLLER 1846: 122. 
EtymologyNamed after Hermann Schlegel (1804-1884), German herpetologist. 
  • Auliya, M. 2000. Record of Tomistoma schlegelii in West Kalimantan. Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter 19 (2): 8-9
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Bauer A.M. and Russell A.P 2017. Carl Bernhard Brühl and the Herpetological Contributions of his Zootomie aller Thierklassen. Bibliotheca Herpetologica 13 (1-2): 4-34 - get paper here
  • Bonke, R. & Böhme, W. 2007. Fragen zur Feilandökologie des Sunda-Gavials, Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER 1838) im Tanjung Puting-Nationalpark, Zentralkalimantan (Indonesien). Elaphe 15 (2): 41-46
  • Bonke, R., F. Ihlow, W. Böhme & D. Rödder 2014. Movement patterns of Tomistoma schlegelii in the Sekonyer Kanan River (Tanjung Puting National Park, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia): preliminary range size estimates. Salamandra 50 (1): 40-52 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. On the occurrence of Schlegel's gavial (Tomistoma schlegeli) in the Malay Peninsula, with remarks on the atlas and axis of the crocodilians. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1896: 628-633 - get paper here
  • Brock, J. 1998. Krokodile. Ein Leben mit Panzerechsen. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 160 pp. - get paper here
  • Brühl, C.B. 1874. Zootomie aller Thierklassen für Lernende, nach Autopsien, skizzirt. Bd. 1-4. Alfred Hölder, Wien: Bd. 1, 86 pp.; Bd. 2, 90 pp.; Bd. 3, 114 pp.; Bd. 4, 152 pp. (published in parts from 1874 to 1888, see Bauer & Russell 2017 for details) - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Gatesy, J.; Amato, G. 1992. Sequence similarity of 12S ribosomal segment of mitochondrial DNAs of gharial and false gharial. Copeia 1992 (): 241-244. - get paper here
  • GRAMENTZ, D. 2012. Zum Schreckruf eines Schlüpflings von Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER, 1838). Sauria 34 (3): 19-24 - get paper here
  • Iijima, M. and Kobayashi, Y. 2019. Mosaic nature in the skeleton of East Asian crocodylians fills the morphological gap between “Tomistominae” and Gavialinae. Cladistics, 35: 623-632. - get paper here
  • Müller, S. 1838. Waarnemingen over de Indische Krokodillen en Beschrijving Van Enne Nieuwe Soort. Tijdschrift voor Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie, Amsterdam and Leyden. 5: 61-87 - get paper here
  • Müller, S. 1846. Ueber den Charakter der Thierwelt auf den Inseln des indischen Archipels, ein Beitrag zur zoologischen Geographie. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 12: 109-128 - get paper here
  • PAN, TAO; JIA-SHUN MIAO, HUA-BIN ZHANG, PENG YAN, PING-SHIN LEE, XIN-YUE JIANG, JIA-HUI OUYANG, YOU-PENG DENG, BAO-WEI ZHANG & XIAO-BING WU. 2021. Near-complete phylogeny of extant Crocodylia (Reptilia) using mitogenome-based data. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 191(4): 1075–1089. - get paper here
  • Piras, Paolo; Luciano Teresi; Angela D. Buscalioni and Jorge Cubo 2009. The shadow of forgotten ancestors differently constrains the fate of Alligatoroidea and Crocodyloidea. Global Ecology and Biogeography (Global Ecol. Biogeogr.) 18: 30–40 - get paper here
  • Selvaraj, G. 2012. Tomistoma schlegelii (false gharial) diet. Herpetological Review 43: 608-609 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Krokodile – Reptiliengiganten in Gefahr. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 16-22 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. 2011. Ein besonderes Schutzprojekt, nicht nur für Krokodile: Danau Mesangat. Reptilia (Münster) 16 (87): 30-35 - get paper here
  • Sommerlad, R. & Baur, M. 2004. Der Sunda-Gavial, Tomistoma schlegelii (MÜLLER 1838) - kann dieses einzigartige Krokodil überleben? Draco 5 (20): 54-67 - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R., Sommerlad, R. & Staniewicz, A. 2015. Conservation of the Sunda gharial Tomistoma schlegelii in Lake Mesangat, Indonesia. International Zoo Yearbook 49: 137–149 - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B.; Bezuijen, M.R.; Auliya, M. & Voris, H.K. 2006. The current and historic distribution of Tomistoma schlegelii (The False Gharial) (MÜLLER 1838) (Crocodylia, Reptilia). Raffles Bull. Zool. 54 (1): 181-197 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Trobisch, D. 1980. Erfolgreiche Ruhigstellung eines Sunda-Gavials (Tomistoma schlegelii) mit Valium® (Reptilia: Crocodylia: Crocodylidae). Salamandra 16 (1): 59-60 - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Krokodile - Biologie und Haltung. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia Münster 11 (6): 95-96]
  • Trutnau, L. & Sommerlad, R. 2006. Crocodilians. Their natural history and captive husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 646 pp. [review in Reptilia GB 48: 8-10]
  • Wermuth,H. & Fuchs,K. 1978. Bestimmen von Krokodilen und ihrer Häute. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart - New York, 100 pages, [ISBN 3-437-30268-X]
  • Willis, Ray E.; L. Rex McAliley, Erika D. Neeley and Llewellyn D. Densmore III 2007. Evidence for placing the false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) into the family Gavialidae: Inferences from nuclear gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43 (3): 787-794 - get paper here
  • Zug, G.R. & Mulcahy, D.G. 2019. Identification guide Amphibians and reptiles of South Tanintharyi. Fauna & Flora International, 101 pp.
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