Toxicocalamus loriae (BOULENGER, 1898)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Toxicocalamus loriae?
|Higher Taxa||Elapidae (Hydrophiinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)|
|Common Names||E: Loria forest snake|
|Synonym||Apistocalamus loriae BOULENGER 1898: 705|
Pseudapistocalamus nymani LÖNNBERG 1900
Apistocalamus pratti BOULENGER 1904: 451
Apisthocalamus loennbergii BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus loriae — BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus pratti — BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus nymani — BOULENGER 1908
Apisthocalamus lamingtoni KINGHORN 1928 (fide WALLACH et al. 2014)
Apistocalamus pratti — PARKER 1936: 92
Toxicocalamus (Apistocalamus) loriae — MCDOWELL 1969: 455
Toxicocalamus loriae — WELCH 1994: 113
Apisthocalamus loennbergi — KOERBER 2009
Toxicocalamus loriae — KRAUS 2009
Toxicocalamus loriae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 732
Toxicocalamus loriae — O’SHEA et al. 2015
|Distribution||Indonesia (Irian Jaya), Papua New Guinea; elevation ~4000 feet (from A. pratti).|
Type locality: Haveri, Central Province
|Reproduction||oviparous; a specimen of Apistocalamus loennbergi, a synonym of T. loriae (MCZ R-119027) contained seven eggs (O’Shea et al. 2018: 422).|
|Types||Holotype: MSNG 29141|
Holotype: AMS R9351, Oro Province: Mt. Lamington [lamingtoni]
Lectotype: BMNH 19188.8.131.52, paralectotypes: BMNH 19184.108.40.206– 19220.127.116.11, both Indonesia: West Papua: north of Fakfak [Apisthocalamus loennbergii]
Holotype: BMNH 1918.104.22.168, Papua New Guinea: Dinawa [Apistocalamus pratti]
Holotype: BMNH 1922.214.171.124, Morobe Province: Sattleberg [Pseudapistocalamus nymani]
|Diagnosis||Description (genus Apistocalamus): Near Ogmodon, Ptrs. , and Toxicocalamus , Blgr. Maxillary extending forwards as far as the palatine, with 5 long grooved teeth gradually decreasing in length; mandibular teeth gradually decreasing in length. Head small, not distinct from neck; eye very small, with vertically subelliptic pupil; nostril pierced between the first upper labial, two nasals, and the internasal; a large praeocular, in contact with the posterior nasal. Body cylindrical; scales smooth, without pits, in 15 rows; ventrals rounded. Tail moderate; subcaudals in two rows (Boulenger 1898: 704).|
Description (species, based on 1 specimen): Snout short, broadly rounded. Rostral a little broader than deep, the portion visible from above measuring one third its distance from the frontal; internasals small, about one third the length of the praefrontals; frontal a little longer than broad , as long as its distance from the end of the snout, much shorter than the parietals; praeocular single, twice as long as deep, forming a suture with the posterior nasal; two postoculars, upper much larger than lower; temporals 1 + 2; six upper labials, third and fourth entering the eye, sixth largest; three lower labials in contact with the anterior chin-shields; posterior chin-shields smaller , separated by a large scale. Scales in 15 rows. Ventrals 196; anal divided; subcaudals 48 + ?. (Boulenger 1898: 705).
Coloration: Dark greyish olive above; upper lip and lower parts yellowish, with three series of small dark spots along the ventrals; subcaudals dark , with light edges (Boulenger 1898: 705).
Size: Total length 580 mm; tail (injured) 90.
|Comment||Habitat: fossorial (digging)|
Type species: Apistocalamus loriae BOULENGER 1898 is the type species of the (sub-) genus Apistocalamus BOULENGER 1898: 705.
Conservation status: least concern; this is the most common Toxicocalamus species with 66% of all museum specimens belonging to this species. However, O’Shea et al. 2015 believes that this variable species represents a species complex.
Taxonomy: Strickland et al. (2016) document at least five undescribed species that all key morphologically to Toxicocalamus loriae.
|Etymology||Named after Dr. Lamberto Loria (1855-1913), an Italian ethnologist who collected in New Guinea (1889-1890) and who founded the first Italian Museum of Ethnography, Florence (1906).|