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Trachemys scripta (THUNBERG in SCHOEPFF, 1792)

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Deirochelyinae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesTrachemys scripta scripta (SCHOEPFF 1792)
Trachemys scripta elegans (WIED 1838)
Trachemys scripta troostii (HOLBROOK 1836) 
Common NamesE: Pondslider, Pond Slider, scripta: Yellowbelly Slider, elegans: Red-eared Slider, troostii: Cumberland Slider
G: Buchstabenschmuckschildkröte, Rotwangenschmuckschildkröte (elegans), Gelbwangenschmuckschildkröte (T. s. scripta), Cumberland-Schmuckschildkröte (troosti)
D: Roodwangschildpadden
S: Hicotea; Icotea; Jicotea
Russian: красноухая черепаха 
SynonymTestudo scripta THUNBERG in SCHOEPFF 1792
Emys vittata GRAY 1831
Emys Grayii — GRAY 1873: 110
Crysemys scripta — BOULENGER 1889
Pseudemys scripta — JORDAN 1899
Crysemys scripta — FRITZ & BIENERT 1981
Crysemys grayi — FRITZ & BIENERT 1981
Pseudemys scripta — STEBBINS 1985: 101
Trachemys scripta — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 175
Trachemys scripta — LINER 1994
Trachemys scripta — KÖHLER 2000: 24
Pseudemys grayi
Trachemys scripta — CROTHER et al. 2012
Trachemys scripta — TTWG 2014: 363
Trachemys scripta — VARGAS-RAMÍREZ et al. 2017

Trachemys scripta scripta (SCHOEPFF 1792)
Testudo serrata DAUDIN 1802
Emys serrata — SAY 1824
Emys Serrata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 267
Emys Serrata — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 225
Pseudemys scripta scripta — CARR 1937
Crysemys scripta scripta — HULSE 1980
Trachemys scripta scripta — IVERSON 1986
Trachemys scripta scripta — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 64
Trachemys scripta scripta — SEIDEL 2002
Trachemys scripta scripta — TTWG 2014: 363
Trachemys scripta scripta — HENNIG 2015

Trachemys scripta elegans (WIED 1838)
Emys elegans WIED 1839: 213
Emys holbrooki GRAY 1844
Emys sanguinolenta GRAY 1855
Trachemys lineata GRAY 1873: 147
Chrysemys scripta var. elegans — BOULENGER 1889
Pseudemys elegans — FORCE 1928
Pseudemys scripta elegans — CAGLE 1944
Pseudemys scripta elegans — STEBBINS 1985: 102
Trachemys scripta elegans — IVERSON 1986
Trachemys scripta elegans — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 65
Trachemys scripta elegans — SEIDEL 2002
Trachemys scripta elegans — TTWG 2014: 363
Trachemys scripta elegans — HENNIG 2015
Trachemys scripta elegans — VARGAS-RAMÍREZ et al. 2017

Trachemys scripta troostii (HOLBROOK 1836)
Emys troosti HOLBROOK 1836: 55
Emys cumberlandensis HOLBROOK 1840
Emys Troostii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 225
Trachemys troosti — GRAY 1863: 181
Chrysemys troostii — BOULENGER 1889
Pseudemys scripta troostii — CARR 1937
Pseudemys scripta troostii — CONANT 1938
Trachemys scripta troostii — IVERSON 1986
Trachemys scripta troostii — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 65
Trachemys scripta troostii — SEIDEL 2002
Trachemys scripta troostii — HENNIG 2012
Trachemys scripta troostii — TTWG 2014: 364
Trachemys scripta troostii — HENNIG 2015
Trachemys scripta troostii — VARGAS-RAMÍREZ et al. 2017 
Distributionscripta: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia) [Rhodin et al. 2010]

elegans: Mexico (Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Jalisco, introduced to Yucatan peninsula), USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico [eastern], Ohio, Oklahoma,Tennessee, Texas, West Virginia); introduced to Brazil (Espírito Santo)

Introduced to Australia (New South Wales, Queensland,Victoria), Austria, Bahamas, Bahrain, Belgium, Bermuda,
Argentina, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cambodia,Canada (Ontario), Cayman Islands, Chile, China (Hong Kong), Colombia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, France, French Polynesia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan, Papua,Sulawesi, Sumatra), Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan (mainland, Ryukyu Archipelago), Malaysia (East,West), Martinique, Micronesia, Myanmar, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Zealand, Northern Mariana Islands [Saipan], Palau, Panama ?, Philippines (Cebu, Luzon, Mindanao), Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles (Mahé), Singapore, Saint Maarten, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain (Balearic Islands, Mallorca, Continental), Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Trinidad, Hong Kong,
USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New Mexico [western], New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, Washington), US Virgin Islands, Vietnam
Introduced to Mexico (Coahuila)

troosti: USA (NC Tennessee, SE Kentucky, SW Virginia, NW Georgia, NE Alabama); Type locality: Cumberland River (probaby Tennessee).

Latin America and USA: USA (Nebraska [HR 30: 108], introduced to Hawaii fide McKeown); Mexico (Baja California, Yucatan, Nuevo Leon), Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil (Rio de Janeiro), Colombia, Venezuela, Chile,
Thailand, Singapore, W Malaysia and other parts of Indochina [introduced; fide COX et al. 1998]

Africa: Introduced to Gambia

Caribbean: Introduced to the French West Indies (Grande-Terre, Basse-Terre) [Schwartz & Thomas 1975)

Europe: Italy (introduced to Sardinia)
Spain (introduced fide MALKMUS 2006)
France (introduced fide Berroneau et al. 2010)
Greece (introduced and breeding on the island of Kos [BRUEKERS et al. 2006], Cyprus [BAIER et al. 2009])
Slovakia (introduced)  
Reproductionoviparous. This species exhibits temperature-dependant sex determination (TSD). 
TypesType: UUZM (= ZMUU) (Linnaean and Thunbergian collections in Uppsala, Sweden).
Holotype: ANSP 179 [troosti]
Holotype: nondesignated fide Seidel & Ernst 2006 [elegans]
Holotype: BMNH 1947.3.4.78 [holbrooki] 
CommentTaxonomy: T. scripta and T. dorbigni are closely related and there is still some confusion about the taxonomy of their subspecies. T. scripta is the largest emydid with a carapace length of up to 60 cm. Trachemys scripta callirostris (GRAY 1855), Trachemys scripta hiltoni (CARR 1942), and Trachemys scripta nebulosa (VAN DENBURGH 1895) have been elevated to species status (SEIDEL 2002). T. (s.) ornata is not mentioned in a recent list by OBST (2003). Trachemys scripta hartwegi (LEGLER 1990) has been moved to Trachemys gaigeae hartwegi.

Conservation: Salzberg (1996) estimated that more than 6 million sliders were exported from the US in 1995, mostly for the pet trade.

Distribution: Not in Venezuela (fide RIVAS et al. 2012). Not listed by COGGER 2014. Not in Panama according to Jaramillo et al. 2010. Not in Ecuador fide Torres-Carvajal et al. 2019: 299 ff).

Introductions: From 1983 to 1997 500,000 to 900,000 specimens were introduced to Spain where many escaped or were released into the wild; the species seems to have established stable populations in various parts of Spain [Malkmus 2006]. Seems to have been introduced to the Channel Island Jersey although no reproduction has been demonstrated (Tonge 1986). Has been found in Micronesia and may have been introduced there (Buden & Taboroši 2016).

Type species: Emys troosti HOLBROOK 1836 is the type species of the genus Trachemys AGASSIZ 1857: 434.

Habitat: freshwater (lakes, ponds, rivers) 
EtymologyThe genus name means “rough turtle”, referring to the roughened annuli on the carapace pleural scutes; “scripta” means written; referring to the letter-like markings on the carapace. 
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