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Trapelus megalonyx GÜNTHER, 1864

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Afghan Ground Agama 
SynonymTrapelus megalonyx GÜNTHER 1864: 159
Agama megalonyx — BOULENGER 1885: 347
Agama microtympanum WERNER 1895: 15
Agama megalonyx — SMITH 1935: 224
Trapelus ruderatus baluchianus (SMITH 1935)
Agama microtympanum — ANDERSON 1963: 475
Agama megalonyx — MINTON 1966
Agama microtympanum — WERMUTH 1967: 18
Agama megalonyx — WERMUTH 1967: 17
Trapelus megalonyx — KHAN 1980: 132
Trapelus megalonyx — RASTEGAR-POUYANI 2000
Trapelus ruderatus megalonyx
Agama ruderata megalonyx
Trapelus megalonyx — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Trapelus microtympanum — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013 
DistributionW Pakistan (Baluchistan), E Afghanistan, SE Iran, India

Type locality: “Eastern Afghanistan”

baluchiana: Pakistan (Quetta- and Sibi districts; Baluchistan). Type locality: Quetta district, Baluchistan.

microtympanum: Iran; Type locality: Persien.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946. 8. 11. 34
Holotype: NMW 19457 [microtympanum] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Nostril below canthus rostralis; dorsal scales heterogeneous, back with scales ofvarying sizes intermixed, enlarged scales not extending onto flanks; 68--88 scales around widest part of body; upper surface ofthigh usually lacking distinctly enlarged scales, or with an area of large scales not intermixed with small scales; callose preanal scales in single row; none of neck scales with reversed imbrication; males without gular sac (from Anderson 1999: 107, as T. ruderatus megalonyx). 
CommentSynonymy: Trapelus ruderatus baluchianus (SMITH 1935) from NW Pakistan has been relegated to T. megalonyx by Rastegar-Pouyani. Agama microtympanum is listed by ANDERSON 1999 as a synonym of T. ruderatus megalonyx although he did not formally synonymize it.

The original description is available online (see link below).

Distribution: Not listed by ANDERSON 1999, The lizards of Iran. 
  • Anderson, S.C. 1963. Amphibians and Reptiles from Iran. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 31(16): 417-498 - get paper here
  • Baig, KJ, Masroor, R., and Arshad, M. 2008. Biodiversity and ecology of the herpetofauna of Cholistan Desert, Pakistan. Russ. J. Herpetol. 15 (3): 193-205 - get paper here
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, Indraneil & Abhijit Das 2017. A Naturalist’s Guide to the Reptiles of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 176 pp.
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Jablonski D, Regan JM, Holzheuser C, Farooqi J, Basit A, Masroor R 2019. Additional data to the herpetofauna of Afghanistan. Herpetozoa 32: 177-193 - get paper here
  • Jablonski D, Urošević A, Andjelković M, Džukić G 2019. An unknown collection of lizards from Afghanistan. ZooKeys 843: 129-147 - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 1980. Affinities and zoogeography of herptiles of Pakistan. Biologia, 26(1-2): 113-171
  • Khan, M.S. 2003. CHECKLIST AND KEY TO THE LIZARDS OF PAKISTAN. Pakistan J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. (1): 1-25 - get paper here
  • Minton, S. A. Jr. 1966. A contribution to the herpetology of West Pakistan. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 134: 29-184. - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2013. Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles. Ecology Letters 17 (1): 13–21 (published online 2013, in print 2014), DOI: 10.1111/ele.12168 - get paper here
  • Rastegar-Pouyani, N. 1998. Systematics and distribution of the Iranian species of Trapelus (Sauria: Agamidae) a review. Russ. J. Herpetol. 5 (2): - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Rastegar-Pouyani,N. 2000. Taxonomic status of Trapelus ruderatus (Olivier) and T. persicus (Blanford), and validity of T. lessonae (De Filippi). Amphibia-Reptilia 21 (1): 91-102 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Werner, Franz 1929. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Fauna von Syrien und Persien. Zool. Anz. 81 (7/10): 238-245 - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1895. Über eine Sammlung von Reptilien aus Persien, Mesopotamien und Arabien. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 45: 13-22 - get paper here
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