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Trimeresurus gumprechti DAVID, VOGEL, PAUWELS & VIDAL, 2002

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Gumprecht’s green pitviper
Chinese: 冈氏竹叶青蛇 
SynonymTrimeresurus gumprechti DAVID, VOGEL, PAUWELS & VIDAL 2002
Trimeresurus gumprechti — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Viridovipera gumprechti — MALHOTRA & THORPE 2004
Viridovipera gumprechti — DAWSON et al. 2008
Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) gumprechti — DAVID et al. 2011
Viridovipera gumprechti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 790
Viridovipera gumprechti — CHAN-ARD et al. 2015: 288
Viridovipera gumprechti — GUO et al. 2018
Viridovipera gumprechti — WANG et al. 2022
Trimeresurus gumprechti— RATHEE et al. 2022 
DistributionNE Thailand (Loei, Phitsanulok, Phetchabun and Chaiyaphum), Laos, Vietnam (Hoa Binh), China (Yunnan), Myanmar

Type locality: Phu Luang Wildlife Research Station, about 15 km northwest of the City of Phu Luang and 45 km southwest of the City of Loei, Loei Province, Thailand.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 1999.9072; paratypes: ZFMK 68524, MNHN-RA 1999.9073, PSUAA 0047, RFI 1345 
DiagnosisDiagnosis.–A species of the genus Trimeresurus, characterized by (1) hemipenes short and strongly spinose; (2) overall bright green coloration in males, deep or dark green in females; (3) interstitial skin black; (4) large size, with a total length greater than 1200 mm in females; (5) conspicuous bicolored postocular stripe in males, thin and white below, wide and bright red above, reversed from the scheme of the ventrolateral stripe (only thin and white in females); (6) vivid, wide bicolored ventrolateral stripe, bright or deep red below/white above in males, extending along the lower part of the first third of the tail, white or blue but well defined in females; (7) eyes deep red in males, yellow in females; (8) tail mostly rusty or reddish-brown (see below); (9) tail long in males, with a ratio TaL/TL ranging from 0.160.21, rather short in females, 0.14-0.16; (10) VEN: 162-168; SC: 51-71; (11) first supralabial distinct from nasal; (12) 21 dorsal scale rows at midbody, moderately keeled; (13) snout covered with rather enlarged juxtaposed scales; (14) internasals either in contact or separated by only 1 scale; (15) supraoculars narrower than internasals, separated by 10-12 smooth cephalic scales. T. gumprechti differs from all other green pitvipers by the combination of the following characters: (1) short, spinose hemipenis, (2) first supralabials separated from the nasal, (3) the very conspicuous (at least in life) reversed bicolored postocular stripe, white below and wide, bright or deep red above, always present in males (postocular streak only white in females), (4) the ventrolateral stripe, bright red below and white above in males, running under the first third of the tail, white in females, (5) eyes deep red in males, (6) black interstitial skin, (7) upper snout scales enlarged, (8) internasal scales often in contact or separated by at most one scale and (9) greatest part of upper surface of the tail rusty red. These characters and the comparisons with other species are detailed below in the Discussion. 
CommentVenomous! This species is related to T. stejnegeri, with which it was formerly confused. The new species is large (to 130 cm). It may also occur in northwestern Laos.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Andreas Gumprecht, German herpetologist. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • David, P., G. Vogel, O.S.G. Pauwels & N. Vidal 2002. Description of a new species of the genus Trimeresurus from Thailand, related to Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt, 1925 (Serpentes, Crotalidae). Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University, 2 (1): 5-19 - get paper here
  • DAVID, PATRICK; GERNOT VOGEL & ALAIN DUBOIS 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the Rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1–51 - get paper here
  • Dawson, Karen; Anita Malhotra, Roger S. Thorpe, Peng Guo, Mrinalini and Thomas Ziegler 2008. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals a new member of the Asian pitviper genus Viridovipera (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49: 356-361 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407 - get paper here
  • Guo, Peng; Qin Liu, Guanghui Zhong, Fei Zhu, Fang Yan, Ting Tang, Rong Xiao, Min Fang, Ping Wang and Xin Fu 2015. Cryptic diversity of green pitvipers in Yunnan, South-west China (Squamata, Viperidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 36 (3): 265 - 276 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Malhotra, Anita & Thorpe, Roger S. 2004. A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 83 –100 [erratum p. 680] - get paper here
  • Nguyen TV, Brakels P, Maury N, Sudavanh S, Pawangkhanant P, Idiiatullina S, Lorphengsy S, Inkhavilay K, Suwannapoom C, Poyarkov NA. 2020. New herpetofaunal observations from Laos based on photo records. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 14(2) [General Section]: 218–249 (e248) - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nguyen, Truong Quang; Tan Van Nguyen, Cuong The Pham, An Vinh Ong & Thomas Ziegler 2018. New records of snakes (Squamata: Serpentes) from Hoa Binh Province, northwestern Vietnam. Bonn zoological Bulletin 67 (1): 15–24 - get paper here
  • Preißler, D. 2004. Alles über Schlangen. Draco 5 (17): 4-21 - get paper here
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  • Rathee, Y. S., Purkayastha, J., Lalremsanga, H. T., Dalal, S., Biakzuala, L., Muansanga, L., & Mirza, Z. A. 2022. A new cryptic species of green pit viper of the genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Serpentes, Viperidae) from northeast India. PloS one, 17(5), e0268402 - get paper here
  • Thompson, C. & Thompson, T. 2008. First contact in the Greater Mekong - new species discoveries. WWF, 40 pp. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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