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Trioceros hanangensis KRAUSE & BÖHME, 2010

IUCN Red List - Trioceros hanangensis - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Mt Hanang Dwarf Chameleon 
SynonymTrioceros hanangensis KRAUSE & BÖHME 2010
Trioceros hanangensis — SPAWLS et al. 2018: 288 
DistributionTanzania (Mt Hanang)

Type locality: Tanzania: Mt. Hanang Forest Reserve near the village Jorodom (4° 25’to 4° 35’S and 35° 20’to 35° 25’E) at 2800 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: ZFMK 82369, adult male with everted hemipenis, collected by P. Krause, March 2002. Paratypes: ZFMK 82368, subadult male, ZSM. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Amedium sized, stocky chameleon resembling a typical member of the Trioceros bitaeniatuscomplex (Rand 1963). The maximum total length is 138 mm; the tail comprises an average of 45 %, males with longer tails. Adult males and females have a similar snout-vent-length (SVL) the females being slightly larger. Body scalation is heterogeneous, with strongly enlarged denticulate scales in two distinct rows on the sides of the body. The gular crest is weak to medium, consisting of scales 1.5 times the length of their maximum width. Aventral crest is clearly visible in bigger specimens to almost indistinct in smaller ones. No rostral appendix is visible like in other members of the bitaeniatus complex (Trioceros narraioca Nečas,Modry& Slapeta, 2003; Trioceros hoehneliiSteindachner, 1891). This chameleon bears a close morphological resemblance to Trioceros sternfeldi from northern Tanzania (Mts. Kilimanjaro, Meru and Ngorongoro Crater) but shows a distinct colour pattern, which differs remarkably from T. sternfeldi(Sternfeld 1912a, Figures 3, 5, 6). Further, it possesses scattered melanophores on the sulcus of the hemipenis which are unique as compared to T. sternfeldi. Despite a close genetic relationship with T. ellioti, the new form can clearly be distinguished by absence of the distinct longitudinal groves on the gular pouch, a more heterogeneous scalation and a stouter body as compared with T. ellioti, which is rather slim (Günther 1895; Spawlset al. 2002). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Hughes, DF, Blackburn, DG. 2019. Evolutionary origins of viviparity in Chamaeleonidae. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 58 (1): 284-302 [2020] - get paper here
  • Krause, P. & Böhme, W. 2010. A new chameleon of the Trioceros bitaeniatus complex from Mt. Hanang, Tanzania, East Africa (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Bonn zool. Bull. 57 (1): 19-29 - get paper here
  • Spawls, Steve; Kim Howell, Harald Hinkel, Michele Menegon 2018. Field Guide to East African Reptiles. Bloomsbury, 624 pp. - get paper here
  • STIPALA, JAN; NICOLA LUTZMÁNN, PATRICK K. MALONZA, LUCA BORGH-ESIO, PAUL WILKINSON, BRENDAN GODLEY, MATTHEW R. EVANS 2011. A new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from the highlands of northwest Kenya. Zootaxa 3002: 1–16 - get paper here
  • STIPALA, JAN; NICOLA LUTZMANN, PATRICK K. MALONZA, PAUL WILKINSON, BRENDAN GODLEY, JOASH NYAMACHE & MATTHEW R. EVANS 2012. A new species of chameleon (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae) from the Aberdare Mountains in the central highlands of Kenya. Zootaxa 3391: 1–22 - get paper here
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